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EEF011 Computer Architecture 計算機結構 吳俊興 高雄大學 資訊工程學系 ( 中央研究院 資訊科學研究所 ) September 22, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "EEF011 Computer Architecture 計算機結構 吳俊興 高雄大學 資訊工程學系 ( 中央研究院 資訊科學研究所 ) September 22, 2004."— Presentation transcript:


2 EEF011 Computer Architecture 計算機結構 吳俊興 高雄大學 資訊工程學系 ( 中央研究院 資訊科學研究所 ) September 22, 2004

3 Outline Class syllabus and schedule Microprocessor history and applications Chapter 1. Fundamental of Computer Design

4 課程資訊 上課地點 : C 上課時間 : 13:10 – 16:05, Wednesdays Tel: (07) Office: 理工二館 室 ( 暫 ) 、 307 室 ( 未來 ) Office hours: 14:00 – 16:00, Thursdays

5 Computer Architecture The term coined by IBM in the early 1960 (Amdahl, Blaauw, and Brooks, 1964) –Referred to the programmer-visible portion of the IBM 360 instruction set The first computer to sell in large quantities with both byte addressing using 8-bit bytes and general-purpose registers –They believed that a family of computers of the same architecture should be able to run the same software –Definition of architecture: The structure of a computer that a machine language programmer must understand to write a correct (timing independent) program for that machine

6 Digital Computer

7 What’s Computer Architecture? Computer Architecture is the science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals Computer architecture is not about using computers to design buildings Microprocessor, CPU

8 What’s Computer Architecture? (Cont.) Computer Architecture is the design of the computer at the hardware/software interface Computer Architecture = Instruction Set Architecture + Machine Organization Computer Architecture Instruction Set DesignMachine Organization Computer InterfaceHardware Components Compiler/System ViewLogic Designer’s View

9 Key considerations in “Computer Architecture” I/O systemInstr. Set Proc. Compiler Operating System Application Digital Design Circuit Design Instruction Set Architecture Firmware Coordination of many levels of abstraction Under a rapidly changing set of forces Continuous evolution: Design, Measurement, and Evaluation Datapath & Control Layout Software Hardware

10 General Purpose vs. Special Purpose Desktop computers: performance/cost –Personal computer, workstation Embedded computers: energy/power –PlayStation-2 video game, digital camera, cell phone, MP3 player, etc. Server computers: reliability, scalability and throughput (rather than latency) –typically include multiple processors and disks

11 教學目標 介紹現代微處理器的內部架構及設計考量,包括 指令集、記憶體結構、輸出入中介等,讓學生能 了解現代微處理器的構造原理、評估原則及與軟 體程式的互相影響,以期能增進學生微算機系統 設計及資訊系統效能提升的能力。

12 重要性 高考三級資訊工程科第二試應考專業科目 1. 資料結構 ( 含資料庫 )4. 數位系統導論 2. 系統程式 ( 含作業系統 )5. 計算機結構 3. 離散數學 6. 計算機網路 計算機組、半導體積體電路組必修科目 碩、博士入學或資格相關考試科目 產業需求:兩兆雙星

13 Textbooks 教科書 J. L. Hennessy and D. A. Patterson, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 3rd Edition, 2003, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. ( 新月代理 ) 參考書 D. A. Patterson and J. L. Hennessy, Computer Organization: The Hardware/Software Interface, 2nd Edition, 1998, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc.

14 課程內容與進度 Ch1. Fundamentals of Computer Design Ch2. Instruction Set Principles and Examples Ch3. Instruction-Level Parallelism and Its Dynamic Exploitation Ch4. Exploiting Instruction-Level Parallelism with Software Approaches Ch5. Memory Hierarchy Design Ch6. Multiprocessors and Thread-Level Parallelism Ch7. Storage Systems Ch8. Interconnection Networks and Clusters Advanced Topics: 64-bit Processors, Vector Processors, Embedded Processors, etc.

15 Schedule 1. 9/22( 三 ) 簡介 /Ch /24( 三 ) Ch /29( 三 ) Ch /01( 三 ) Ch /06( 三 ) Ch. 2 加退選 ; 分組 (2-3 人 )12. 12/08( 三 ) Ch /13( 三 ) Ch /15( 三 ) Ch. 6Paper report #2 (12/14) 5. 10/20( 三 ) Ch. 3Proposal (10/19) /22( 三 ) Ch /27( 三 ) Ch /29( 三 ) Ch /03( 三 ) Ch. 4Paper report #1 (11/02) 16. 1/05( 三 ) Ch /10( 三 ) Ch /12( 三 ) Ch. 8 期末報告 (1/11) 9. 11/17( 三 ) 期中考 18. 1/19( 三 ) 期末考 Proposal format: title, motivation, introduction, anticipated results, references Report format: review, comments Final report and presentation (10-15 mins)

16 參考題目 64-bit CPU Embedded CPUs (Secure CPU; Network processors) SoC Bio-chip Power-saving Issues I/O Interface (USB/S-ATA/SCSI) Hardware/software co-design

17 查詢工具 IEEE Xplore ACM Digital Library ISI Web of Science Google (ext:pdf, site:edu) CiteSeer – Scientific Literature Digital Library NCSTRL - Networked Computer Science Technical Reference Library DBLP - Computer Science Bibliography WWW Computer Architecture Page Tom's Hardware Guide - Processors

18 評分標準 ( 暫定 ) 研究所 1. 習題作業及論文研讀報告 (20%) 2. 期中考 (20%) 3. 期末考 (25%) 4. 期末報告 (25%) 5. 學習態度與課堂表現 (10%) 大學部 1. 習題作業及論文研讀報告 (30%) 2. 期中考 (30%) 3. 期末考 (30%) 4. 學習態度與課堂表現 (10%)

19 Microprocessor History

20 Definitions A microprocessor is a silicon chip which forms the core of a microcomputer –the concept of what goes into a microprocessor has changed over the years (see history) Microprocessors are used in two general systems –general purpose computing systems –embedded control applications autos, ovens, phones, toys,... these are called microcontrollers

21 History Microprocessors have a short but significant history –In 1969, a Japanese company (Busicom) approached Intel and asked them to build a set of custom chips for a hand-held calculator –Intel proposed a single programmable chip (4004) –It was released in 1971 as the world ’ s first microprocessor It was a 4 bit machine constructed out of 2300 transistors on a 16-pin chip

22 Growth In 1974, Intel released the first 8-bit microprocessor the 8080 –it consisted of 6000 transistors and could address 64K of memory –Digital Research released the first general purpose operating system for a microprocessor, CP/M in 1975 In 1978, Intel released the 8086, a 16-bit microprocessor constructed out of 29,000 transistors –At the same time, other companies such as Texas Instruments and Motorola released microprocessors

23 The First (?) PC Ed Roberts (at the “ failing ” calculator company MITS) designs Altair 8800 (1974) – based on 8080 microprocessor, –affordable price of $375 –no keyboard, no screen, no storage, –4k memory, programmable by means of a switch panel Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded Microsoft(1975) –BASIC 2.0 on the Altair 8800 –first high-level language available on a home computer

24 Intel 4004 First Microprocessor –1971 –2300 transistors –4 bit bus –640 bytes of addressable memory –750 KHz

25 Intel 8086 First IBM PC Chip –1978 –29,000 transistors –16 bit bus –1 MB addressable memory –10 MHz

26 Intel Pentium III Pentium III Processor –600 MHz, 9.5 M transistors –0.25u 5M process, 2.0V, 34.5W –Dynamic Execution Superscalar pipeline –16/16 KB onchip I/D cache + 512KB offchip 2nd -level cache –Up to 4GB of addressable memory space

27 Chip Performance

28 Perspective Putting performance growth in perspective: 1988 supercomputer in 1993 server! IBM POWER2 Cray YMP Workstation Supercomputer Year MIPS 200 MIPS 50 MIPS Cost $120,000 $1,000,000 Clock 71.5 MHz 167 MHz Cache 256 KB 0.25 KB Memory 512 MB 256 MB

29 Capacity Growth Good news -- exponential growth in hardware capacity –Logic growth: 60% to 80% per year –DRAM growth: 60% per year (in 400% increments/3 years) –Disk growth: 50% per year (was 25%/year until 1990) Bad news -- exponential growth in hardware usage –Program size: 50% to 100% per year Increase software productivity -- standard components/interface layers Feature list increases -- “bloatware” Memory used to enhance user interface – GUI Results –Storage may be approaching “free” on a per-bit basis, but somehow it always seems to be full

30 Moore's Law Gordon Moore once observed that the speed and power of microprocessors seems to double every 12 to 18 months. This trend has held true for the past 20 years and is showing no sign of slowing down. What does this mean for the future of computing? What other technologies can you think of which get faster and more powerful every year, and yet also get cheaper and more affordable!

31 Microprocessor Applications Most microprocessors are sold for embedded control applications All Microprocessors CPUs 98% 2% PCs 98% 2% Embedded Control Other CPUs

32 Embedded System Growth Embedded is the largest and fastest-growing part of the worldwide microprocessor industry Embedded is approximately 100 % of worldwide unit volume in microprocessors Average of processors per home –(only 5 are within the home PC) “ Turley ’ s Law ” : –The amount of processing power on your person will double every 12 months

33 Finally How to succeed in life... Take a microprocessor/ microcontroller chip Build an embedded system Add support chips Program way-cool functions into it Sell it for Gigabucks

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