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**Digital Electronics Dr. Bahawodin Baha, University of Brighton, UK.**

March 2007 Digital Systems, Principles and Applications, 10th Edition R.J Tocci, N. S. Windmer, G. L. Moss, 2007. Applications: Computers Telecommunication Automation Medical Science and Technology Transportation Space Exploration Entertainment Home Appliances Others

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**Course Summary Overview of Electronics**

Digital Electronics Number systems, decimal, binary, hexadecimal Combinational logic circuits Sequential logic circuits Computer Systems

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**Combinational Logic Systems**

Course Summary (cont.) Combinational Logic Systems Number systems: Binary, decimal and hexadecimal conversions and calculations Basic logic gates: AND, OR, NOT and Ex-OR Truth tables, Boolean equations. Combinational logic circuit design: General hierarchical logic design methodology Minimisation using Karnaugh maps and Boolean algebra, De-Morgan’s laws. Simulation of gates and combinational logic designs Implementation and testing of designs using a suitable version of TTL series ICs. Practical aspects of using logic ICs: data sheets, current and voltage characteristics, timing issues, output types, compatibility, families etc..

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**Course Summary (cont.) Sequential logic design**

Flip-flops: SR, JK, D, T types, truth tables, excitation tables and device operation. Flip-flop applications: Registers and counters (asynchronous); MSI and LSI devices Synchronous counter and sequence generator design method

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**Course Summary (cont.) Introduction to Microprocessor Systems**

Overview of computer systems architectures, a simple microprocessor-based system, the stored programme concept. Design of a microprocessor based system Differences between microprocessors and microcontrollers. Brief history of microprocessors and microcontrollers.

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**Overview of Electronics**

Analogue electronics Power electronics Physical electronics Differences between digital and other types of electronics Numerical Presentation

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**In 1947, Transistor was invented in Bell labs in the USA.**

It was as tall as the face of wristwatch. In November 2001, another Bell lab team has built a transistor from a single Molecule - small enough to fit about 10 million transistors on the head of a pin.

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**Numerical Representation**

There is two ways to represent numerical values. 1- Analogue In analogue representation one quantity is represented by another quantity which is directly proportional to the first quantity. Analogue = Continuous 2- Digital In digital representation the quantities are not represented by proportional quantities but symbols called digits. The digital representation is in discrete steps. Digital = Discrete Logic Level in digital representation, 0 – 0.8 logic 0 and 2 – 5 logic 1. Voltage between 0.8 V and 2 V are unacceptable and are never used.

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**Converting decimal to binary and Converting decimal to hexadecimal **

Number systems Type of Numbers Decimal, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal Converting decimal to binary and Converting decimal to hexadecimal Converting binary to hexadecimal

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**Number Systems g Decimal Binary Hexadecimal 0000 1 0001 2 0010 3 0011**

Base of 10 Binary Base 0f 2 Hexadecimal Base of 16 0000 1 0001 2 0010 3 0011 4 0100 5 0101 6 0110 7 0111 8 1000 9 1001 10 1010 A 11 1011 B 12 1100 C 13 1101 D 14 1110 E 15 1111 F g

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**Converting Decimal to Binary**

Convert Therefore, = (1000)2 LSB, Less Significant Bit MSB, Most significant Bit To examine (0 X 2 0) + (0 X 2 1) + (0 X 2 2) + (1 X 2 3) = 8 decimal into binary

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**2nd Example Convert 624 decimal into binary**

624 decimal = in binary. To examine the result (1 X 2 4) + (1 X 2 5) + (1 X 2 6) + (1 X 2 9) = 624

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**Converting Decimal to Hex**

Find the Hex equivalent of (3875) (3875) = (F23)H To examine (15 X 162) + (2 X 161) + (3 X 160) = 3875

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**Converting Hex to Decimal**

Convert (AF16B)16 to decimal. (AF16B)16 = [(10 X 164) + (15 X 163) + (1 X 162) + (6 X 161) + (11 X 160)] = ( ) = (717163)10

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**Converting Binary to Hex**

To convert Binary into Hex, simply group them in four and write down the Hex equivalent for each group. Example: ( ) 2 = (1011)2 (0011)2 = (11)10 (3)10 = B316

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**Main Points Digital Electronics use many exciting applications**

Introduction to digital electronics Number systems: Decimal, binary and hex Converting from one number system into another

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**The End Thank you for your attention. Any questions?**

Good luck and have fun!

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