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Digital Electronics Applications: Computers Telecommunication Automation Medical Science and Technology Transportation Space Exploration Entertainment Home Appliances Others Dr. Bahawodin Baha, University of Brighton, UK. March 2007 Digital Systems, Principles and Applications, 10th Edition R.J Tocci, N. S. Windmer, G. L. Moss, 2007.

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Course Summary Overview of Electronics Digital Electronics Number systems, decimal, binary, hexadecimal Combinational logic circuits Sequential logic circuits Computer Systems

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Combinational Logic Systems Number systems: Binary, decimal and hexadecimal conversions and calculations Basic logic gates: AND, OR, NOT and Ex-OR Truth tables, Boolean equations. Combinational logic circuit design: General hierarchical logic design methodology Minimisation using Karnaugh maps and Boolean algebra, De- Morgan’s laws. Simulation of gates and combinational logic designs Implementation and testing of designs using a suitable version of TTL series ICs. Practical aspects of using logic ICs: data sheets, current and voltage characteristics, timing issues, output types, compatibility, families etc.. Course Summary (cont.)

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Sequential logic design Flip-flops: SR, JK, D, T types, truth tables, excitation tables and device operation. Flip-flop applications: Registers and counters (asynchronous); MSI and LSI devices Synchronous counter and sequence generator design method

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Course Summary (cont.) Introduction to Microprocessor Systems Overview of computer systems architectures, a simple microprocessor-based system, the stored programme concept. Design of a microprocessor based system Differences between microprocessors and microcontrollers. Brief history of microprocessors and microcontrollers.

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Overview of Electronics Analogue electronics Power electronics Physical electronics Differences between digital and other types of electronics Numerical Presentation

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In 1947, Transistor was invented in Bell labs in the USA. It was as tall as the face of wristwatch. In November 2001, another Bell lab team has built a transistor from a single Molecule - small enough to fit about 10 million transistors on the head of a pin.

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Numerical Representation There is two ways to represent numerical values. 1- Analogue In analogue representation one quantity is represented by another quantity which is directly proportional to the first quantity. Analogue = Continuous 2- Digital In digital representation the quantities are not represented by proportional quantities but symbols called digits. The digital representation is in discrete steps. Digital = Discrete Logic Level in digital representation, 0 – 0.8 logic 0 and 2 – 5 logic 1. Voltage between 0.8 V and 2 V are unacceptable and are never used.

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Number systems Type of Numbers Decimal, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal Converting decimal to binary and Converting decimal to hexadecimal Converting binary to hexadecimal

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Number Systems Decimal Base of 10 Binary Base 0f 2 Hexadecimal Base of A B C D E F

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Converting Decimal to Binary Convert Therefore, 8 10 = (1000)2 LSB, Less Significant Bit MSB, Most significant Bit To examine (0 X 2 0 ) + (0 X 2 1 ) + (0 X 2 2 ) + (1 X 2 3 ) = 8 decimal into binary

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2 nd Example Convert 624 decimal into binary 624 decimal = in binary. To examine the result (1 X 2 4 ) + (1 X 2 5 ) + (1 X 2 6 ) + (1 X 2 9 ) = 624

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Converting Decimal to Hex Find the Hex equivalent of (3875) (3875) = (F23)H To examine (15 X 16 2 ) + (2 X 16 1 ) + (3 X 16 0 ) = 3875

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Converting Hex to Decimal Convert (AF16B)16 to decimal. (AF16B)16 = [(10 X 16 4 ) + (15 X 16 3 ) + (1 X 16 2 ) + (6 X 16 1 ) + (11 X 16 0 )] = ( ) = (717163)10

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Converting Binary to Hex To convert Binary into Hex, simply group them in four and write down the Hex equivalent for each group. Example: ( ) 2 = (1011)2 (0011)2 = (11)10 (3)10 = B316

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Main Points Digital Electronics use many exciting applications Introduction to digital electronics Number systems: Decimal, binary and hex Converting from one number system into another

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The End Thank you for your attention. Any questions? Good luck and have fun!

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