Presentation on theme: "CoSci 442 Microprocessor Systems Presented by: Engr. Ronnie D. Caytiles BSCS College of Computer Studies University of Antique."— Presentation transcript:
CoSci 442 Microprocessor Systems Presented by: Engr. Ronnie D. Caytiles BSCS College of Computer Studies University of Antique
Contents: General Definitions Historical Perspectives – Mechanical Age – Electrical Age – Programming Advancements – Microprocessor Age – Modern Microprocessors Microprocessor Applications John von Neumann(1903-1957)
What is a computer? A Computer is a programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: – It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. – It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program ).
What is a computer? Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery wires, transistors, and circuits is called hardware. the instructions and data are called software.
What comprises a computer? All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components: – Memory: Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs. – Mass storage device : Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives.
What comprises a computer? – Input device: Usually a keyboard and mouse are the input device through which data and instructions enter a computer. – Output device: A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished. – Central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions.
What comprises a computer? In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic components to work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another.
Classifications of computers: Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there is considerable overlap: – Personal computer – Working station – Minicomputer – Mainframe – Supercomputer
Personal Computer A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data.
Working Station A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor.
Working Station A type of computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other types of applications that require a moderate amount of computing power and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. Workstations generally come with a large, high resolution graphics screen, at least 64 MB (mega bytes) of RAM, built- in network support, and a graphical user interface. Like personal computers, most workstations are single user computers. However, workstations are typically linked together to form a local-area network, although they can also be used as stand-alone systems.
Minicomputer A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously. A minicomputer, a term no longer much used, is a computer of a size intermediate between a microcomputer and a mainframe. IBM AS/400 is an example.
Mainframe A powerful multi- user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously.
Supercomputer An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second. Typically used for scientific and engineering applications that must handle very large databases or do a great amount of computation (or both).
What is a microcomputer? The term microcomputer is generally synonymous with personal computer, or a computer that depends on a microprocessor. Microcomputers are designed to be used by individuals, whether in the form of PCs, workstations or notebook computers.
What is a microcomputer? A microcomputer contains a CPU on a microchip (the microprocessor), a memory system (typically ROM and RAM), a bus system and I/O ports, typically housed in a motherboard.
Microprocessor Overview What is a microprocessor? – Microprocessors are regarded as one of the most important devices in our everyday machines called computers. – Microprocessor is an electronic circuit that functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, providing computational control. – Microprocessors incorporate arithmetic and logic functional units as well as the associated control logic, instruction processing circuitry, a portion of the memory hierarchy. portions of the interface logic for the input/output (I/O) and memory subsystems – CPU in a single chip
Microprocessor Overview What is CPU? – Central Processing Unit – Executes instructions – Store data & instructions temporarily through its internal registers – Performs arithmetic & logical operations
Microprocessor Overview Microprocessor Classifications – by the semiconductor technology of their design TTL, transistor-transistor logic CMOS, complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor ECL, emitter-coupled logic – by the width of the data format they process 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, or 64 bit – by their instruction set CISC, complex instruction-set computers RISC, reduced instruction-set computers
Microprocessor Overview Microprocessors have been compared with the heart and the brains of the humans. Their operation has been likened to a switched board, and to a nervous system in an animal. Its original purpose was to control memory. Thus, a microprocessor is ‘a component that implements memory’. A microprocessor can do any information-processing task that can be expressed, precisely, as a plan. It is totally uncommitted as to what its plan will be. It is a truly general- purpose information-processing device. The plan, which it is to execute—which will, in other words, control its operation—is stored electronically. This is the principle of “stored program control”. Without a program the microprocessor can do nothing.
Microprocessor Overview Three basic characteristics differentiate microprocessors: – Instruction set: The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute. – Bus width: The number of bits processed in a single instruction. – Clock speed: Given in megahertz (MHz), the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute.
Microprocessor Overview In both cases, the higher the value, the more powerful the CPU. For example, a 32 bit microprocessor that runs at 50MHz is more powerful than a 16-bit microprocessor that runs at 50MHz. In addition to bus width and clock speed, microprocessors are classified as being either RISC (reduced instruction set computer) or CISC (complex instruction set computer).
Historical Perspectives Mechanical Age – Abacus – Pascal’s Calculator – Babbage’s Analytical Engine Electrical Age – Hollerith’s Punched Card Machine – Z 3, invented by Konrad Zuse – Colossus, invented by Alan Turing – ENIAC, Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator – EDVAC, Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Calculator
Historical Perspectives Microprocessor Age – Intel 4004(1971), world’s first microprocessor – Intel 4040, updated version – Intel 8008, extended 8-bit version – Intel 8080, first modern 8-bit microprocessor – MITS Altair 8800, first personal computer – Intel 8085
Historical Perspectives Modern Microprocessors – Intel 8086/8088 – Intel 80286 – Intel 80386 – Intel 80486 – Pentium – Pentium Pro – Pentium II – Pentium III – Pentium IV
Microprocessor Applications Personal Computer Personal Workstation Real Time Controller Embedded Control
Questions??? Charles Babbage(1791-1871)
Assignment #02 Differentiate CISC from RISC. Determine the number of transistors & clock speeds of the following microprocessors: – Pentium Processors – Dual Core Processors – Quad Core Processors To be submitted on: November 16, 2010
Activity #01 Create five (5) groups Submit group members name in a sheet of paper.
Quiz #001 Identify the following: – A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished. – A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. – An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second. – an electronic circuit that functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, providing computational control. – The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute.