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Dec Hex Bin 1 1 00000001 Prof. Sari Kulthm. MICROPROCESSORS – CET2123C Lecture 2 – HCS History and Features.

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Presentation on theme: "Dec Hex Bin 1 1 00000001 Prof. Sari Kulthm. MICROPROCESSORS – CET2123C Lecture 2 – HCS History and Features."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dec Hex Bin Prof. Sari Kulthm. MICROPROCESSORS – CET2123C Lecture 2 – HCS History and Features

2 Compare and contrast microprocessors and microcontrollers. Describe the advantages of microcontrollers for some applications. Explain the concept of embedded systems. Discuss criteria for considering a microcontroller. Explain the variations of speed, packaging, memory. Understand cost per unit and how these affect choosing a microcontroller. OBJECTIVES this chapter enables the student to:

3 Explain the evolution of 68xx microcontrollers. Compare and contrast the various members of the HCS12 family. Give the history and features of HCS12/9S12 microcontrollers. OBJECTIVES this chapter enables the student to: (cont)

4 By microprocessor we mean the general-purpose microprocessors such as Intel’s x86 family.  8086, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium  or Motorola’s PowerPC family These microprocessors contain no RAM, no ROM, and no I/O ports on the chip itself. For this reason, they are commonly referred to as general-purpose microprocessors.  see fig Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors - descriptions/differences

5 A microcontroller has a CPU, a fixed amount of RAM & ROM, I/O ports & timer all on a single chip. 1.1Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors - descriptions/differences Figure 1-1 Microprocessor System Contrasted with Microcontroller System The design makes them ideal for applications in which cost and space are critical.

6 An embedded product is controlled by its own internal microprocessor (or microcontroller) as opposed to an external controller.  typically the microcontroller’s ROM is burned with a purpose for specific functions needed for the system A printer is an embedded system because the processor inside performs one task only.  namely, getting the data and printing it Contrast this with any x86 IBM-compatible PC, which can be used for any number of applications. 1.1Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors - embedded systems

7 Table 1-1 lists some embedded products. 1.1Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors - embedded systems

8 Sometimes a microcontroller is inadequate for the task. Manufacturers such as Intel, Freescale Semiconductor, and AMD have targeted their microprocessor for the high end of the embedded market. These processors are often called high-end embedded processors. Very often the terms embedded processor and microcontroller are used interchangeably. 1.1Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors - embedded applications

9 A critical need of an embedded system is to decrease power consumption and space.  trend is to integrate more & more functions on the CPU and let designers decide which features to use Many companies have a chip that contains the entire CPU and all the supporting logic and memory, except for DRAM.  the entire computer on a single chip Due to Linux, MS-DOS & Windows standardization, many embedded systems use x86 PCs. 1.1Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors - embedded applications

10 There are five major 8-bit microcontrollers. Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola) 68HC08/68HC11/12 Intel 8051 Atmel AVR Zilog Z8 PIC from Microchip Technology. Each has a unique instruction set and register set.  therefore, they are not compatible with each other 1.1Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors - choosing microcontrollers

11 Three criteria for choosing microcontrollers: Meeting the computing needs of the task at hand.  efficiently and cost effectively 8-, 16-, 32-bit? Other considerations…  highest speed the microcontroller supports?  chip packaging; power consumption  amount of RAM and ROM on the chip  number of I/O pins and the timer on the chip  ease of upgrade to higher-performance versions  cost per unit 1.1Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors - criteria for choosing

12 Availability of software/hardware development tools.  assembler, debugger, a code-efficient C language compiler, emulator, tools, technical support, and both in-house and outside expertise Third-party vendor support for a chip can be as good as, if not better than, support from the chip manufacturer. 1.1Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors - criteria for choosing

13 For some designers, ready availability in needed quantities both now and in the future is even more important than the first two criteria. The 8051 family has the largest number of diversified (multiple source) suppliers.  over fifty companies currently produce the 8051 Freescale, Atmel, Zilog, and Microchip Technology have all dedicated massive resources to ensure their products are stable, mature, and single sourced. 1.1Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors - criteria for choosing

14 The microcontroller is playing a major role in an emerging field called mechatronics. Mechatronic systems involves finding an optimal balance between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and actuator implementation, automatic digital information processing and overall control. Requires multi disciplinary expertise across a range of disciplines, such as: mechanical engineering, electronics, information technology, and decision making theories. 1.1Microcontrollers and Embedded Processors - mechatronics

15 In 1974, Motorola introduced the 8-bit 6800 microprocessor.  3 years after Intel had introduced the 4004 In the 80s, the Intel 8085 and 68xx from Motorola dominated the 8-bit microprocessor market.  eventually both companies introduced microcontrollers Intel used a whole new architecture called  not based on Overview of the CPU12 and CPU08 brief history of the 68xx microprocessor

16 80’s microcontrollers had small amounts of RAM, a few Kbytes of ROM for the program, a couple of timers, and many pins for I/O ports.  on a single 40-pin chip 1.2Overview of the CPU12 and CPU08 brief history of the 68xx microprocessor Figure 1-2Simplified View of a Microcontroller This changed in the 90s with PIC microcontrollers from Microchip.

17 To increase performance of 68HC11, Motorola introduced the 16-bit 68HC12 in  the term CPU12 refers to the 16-bit architecture of the 68HC12 CPU12 instructions are a superset of the 68HC11 instruction set  code written for 68HC11 can be run on a CPU12 For those who have mastered one family, understanding the other family is easy.  since the CPU08 is a subset of the CPU12 1.2Overview of the CPU12 and CPU08 brief history of the 68xx microprocessor

18 In 2004, the semiconductor division of Motorola became a separate and independent entity called Freescale Semiconductor.  put massive efforts and resources into revamping the microcontroller products The goal is “easy migration between Freescale's 8-bit family and 32-bit ColdFire devices. Designers can develop new applications using the same software and hardware development tools for both 8-bit and 32-bit MCUs. 1.2Overview of the CPU12 and CPU08 Motorola to Freescale

19 HCS and RS chips - advances in chip design led to more power-efficient CMOS technology.  HC (high-density CMOS) in the Freescale products The HCS08/HCS12 and RS08/S12 series increase performance and the features of microcontrollers while keeping the power consumption low. The HCS08/HCS12 and RS08/S12 series have been the answers to these challenges. See the Freescale website for more information. 1.2Overview of the CPU12 and CPU08

20 CPU08 and CPU12 features - on-chip program (code) ROM, data RAM, timers, ADC, and USART (Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) and I/O ports.  all have peripherals such as timers, ADC (analog-to-digital converter), and USART Microcontroller program ROM type - program ROM size can vary from a few kilobytes to several megabytes, depending on the family member.  available in Flash, OTP, and masked 1.2Overview of the CPU12 and CPU08

21 Microcontroller with UV-EPROM - some of the microcontrollers used UV-EPROM for on-chip program ROM.  requires a PROM burner and a UV-EPROM eraser Microcontrollers with Flash - is ideal for fast development and used in place of the UV-EPROM.  a separate eraser is not needed OTP version of the microcontroller - one-time- programmable versions of the microcontroller are also available from manufacturers. 1.2Overview of the CPU12 and CPU08

22 Masked version of microcontroller - send in your program, a chipmaker will burn the program into the chip during the fabrication process of the chip.  cheapest of all types, if unit numbers are high enough  there is a minimum order for the masked version of the microcontrollers Microcontroller peripherals - ADC (analog-to- digital converter), timers, and USART are standard peripherals.  including the CPU08 and CPU12 family members 1.2Overview of the CPU12 and CPU08

23 1.2Overview of the CPU12 and CPU08 Freescale chip identification Figure 1-6Freescale Chip Identification Scheme

24 Microcontroller data RAM and EEPROM - RAM space from a few hundred bytes to several kilobytes.  EEPROM is optional, mainly for storage of critical data Microcontroller I/O pins - 8 to 100 pins dedicated for I/O.  depends on number of pins in the package, varies widely BDM (background debug mode) - allows us to examine contents of the CPU such as RAM, ROM, and registers as we trace and debug the program. 1.2Overview of the CPU12 and CPU08

25 Other microcontrollers - include the 8051, PIC18, AVR, and Z8. 1.2Overview of the CPU12 and CPU08 other companies and controllers AVR is made by Atmel Corp. Microchip makes the PIC18F/PIC16F. Zilog produces the Z8 microcontroller.

26 END ;Chapter One Dec Hex Bin The HCS12/9S12 Microcontroller: History and Features


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