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Timing Diagram is a graphical representation. It represents the execution time taken by each instruction in a graphical format. The execution time is represented.

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Presentation on theme: "Timing Diagram is a graphical representation. It represents the execution time taken by each instruction in a graphical format. The execution time is represented."— Presentation transcript:

1 Timing Diagram is a graphical representation. It represents the execution time taken by each instruction in a graphical format. The execution time is represented in T- states. Instruction Cycle: The time required to execute an instruction is called instruction cycle. Machine Cycle: The time required to access the memory or input/output devices is called machine cycle. T-State: The machine cycle and instruction cycle takes multiple clock periods. A portion of an operation carried out in one system clock period is called as T-state. MACHINE CYCLES OF 8085: The 8085 microprocessor has 5 (seven) basic machine cycles. They are 1.Opcode fetch cycle (4T) 2.Memory read cycle (3 T) 3.Memory write cycle (3 T) 4.I/O read cycle (3 T) 5.I/O write cycle (3 T) Tressa Michael

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3 Opcode Fetch Machine Cycle The first step of executing any instruction is the Opcode fetch cycle. –In this cycle, the microprocessor brings in the instruction’s Opcode from memory. To differentiate this machine cycle from the very similar “memory read” cycle, the control & status signals are set as follows: –IO/M=0, s0 and s1 are both 1. –This machine cycle has four T-states. The 8085 uses the first 3 T-states to fetch the opcode. T4 is used to decode and execute it. –It is also possible for an instruction to have 6 T-states in an opcode fetch machine cycle. Tressa Michael

4 Memory Read Machine Cycle The memory read machine cycle is exactly the same as the opcode fetch except: –It only has 3 T-states –The s0 signal is set to 0 instead. Tressa Michael

5 The Memory Read Machine Cycle –To understand the memory read machine cycle, let’s study the execution of the following instruction: MVI A, 32 –In memory, this instruction looks like: The first byte 3EH represents the opcode for loading a byte into the accumulator (MVI A), the second byte is the data to be loaded. –The 8085 needs to read these two bytes from memory before it can execute the instruction. Therefore, it will need at least two machine cycles. –The first machine cycle is the opcode fetch discussed earlier. –The second machine cycle is the Memory Read Cycle. 2000H 2001H 3E 32 Tressa Michael

6 The Memory Read Machine Cycle –To understand the memory read machine cycle, let’s study the execution of the following instruction: MVI A, 32 –In memory, this instruction looks like: The first byte 3EH represents the opcode for loading a byte into the accumulator (MVI A), the second byte is the data to be loaded. –The 8085 needs to read these two bytes from memory before it can execute the instruction. Therefore, it will need at least two machine cycles. –The first machine cycle is the opcode fetch discussed earlier. –The second machine cycle is the Memory Read Cycle. 2000H 2001H 3E 32 Tressa Michael

7 The Memory Write Operation In a memory write operation: –The 8085 places the address on the address bus –Identifies the operation as a ‘memory write’ (IO/M=0, s1=0, s0=1). –Places the contents of the accumulator on the data bus and asserts the signal WR. –During the last T-state, the contents of the data bus are saved into the memory location. Tressa Michael

8 MVI B, data Tressa Michael

9 8085 timing diagram for Opcode fetch cycle for MOV C, A. Tressa Michael

10 INR M Tressa Michael

11 ADD M Tressa Michael

12 STA addr Tressa Michael

13 IN Byte Tressa Michael

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