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Microprocessors Chapter 1 An Introduction To Microprocessor And Computer prepared by Dr. Mohamed A. Shohla.

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Presentation on theme: "Microprocessors Chapter 1 An Introduction To Microprocessor And Computer prepared by Dr. Mohamed A. Shohla."— Presentation transcript:

1 Microprocessors Chapter 1 An Introduction To Microprocessor And Computer prepared by Dr. Mohamed A. Shohla

2 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course Chapter Overview A Historical Background The Microprocessor Age Pentium Evolution The Microprocessor-Based Personal computer System The Microprocessor

3 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course The Microprocessor Age-1 (a) 1970s Processors Introduced Clock speeds108 KHz 2 MHz5–10 MHz5–8 MHz Bus width4 bits8 bits 16 bits8 bits No. of transistors Addressable memory640 bytes16 KB64 KB1 MB Virtual memory—————

4 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course The Microprocessor Age-2 (b) 1980s Processors TMDX386TMSX486TM DX Introduced Clock speeds6-12MHz16-33MHz MHz Bus width16 bits32 bits16 bits32 bits No. of transistors million Addressable memory 16 megabytes 4 gigabytes Virtual memory1 gigabyte64 terabytes

5 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course TMSXPentium Pentium II Introduced Clock speeds MHz60-166MHz MHz MHz Bus width32 bits 64 bits No. of transistors1.2 million3.1 million5.5 million7.5 million Addressable memory4 gigabytes 64 gigabytes Virtual memory64 terabyte64 terabytes The Microprocessor Age-3 (c) 1990s Processors

6 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course Pentium IIIPentium 4 Introduced9911/2000 Clock speeds MHz GHz Bus width64 bits No. of transistors95 million42 million Addressable memory64 gigabytes Virtual memory64 terabytes The Microprocessor Age-4 (d) Recent Processors

7 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course The Pentium Evaluation (1971)First 4-bit, 4k x 4 Memory, 45 Inst., 50 KIPS (1973)8-bit, 16 KB Memory, 48 Inst (1975)First 8-bit general purpose processor, 64 KB Memory, TTL, 500 KIPS (1977)Last 8-bit general purpose processor, Internal clock / 8086 (1978) First 16-bit processor, 1 MB Memory, 2.5 MIPS, 4-6 Byte fetch queue (1983)Last 16-bit processor, 16 MB Memory, 4 MIPS

8 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course The Pentium Evaluation (1986)First 32-bit microprocessor, 32-bit address and data bus, 4GB Memory, Multitask (1989)Package (proc. + coproc + 8KB cache), pipelining - Pentium (1993)16 KB cache (8 KB Inst. cache + 8 KB Data cache), 64-bit data bus, 2 Execution Unit, Superscalar - Pentium Pro (95)16 KB L1 cache, 256 KB L2 cache, 3 Execution Unit, More Superscalar - Pentium II (1997)On-board 32 KB L1 cache, 512 KB L2 cache, MMX technology

9 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course The Pentium Evaluation - Pentium III (99)Additional FP instructions to support 3D graphics. - Pentium IV (2001) Additional FP and other enhancements for multimedia. - ItaniumThis new generation of Intel processor makes use of a 64-bit organization with the IA-64 architecture.

10 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course Compare between the through Pentium 4 microprocessor.

11 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course The block diagram of a computer system.

12 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course The purpose of the microprocessor in a microprocessor-based computer system At the heart of the microprocessor-based computer system is the microprocessor integrated cir­cuit. The microprocessor, sometimes referred to as the CPU (central processing unit), is the con­trolling element in a computer system. The microprocessor controls memory and I/O through a series of connections called buses. The microprocessor performs three main tasks for the computer system: 1.data transfer between itself and the memory or I/O systems. 2.simple arithmetic and logic operations. 3.program flow via simple decisions. Albeit these are simple tasks, but through them, the microprocessor performs virtually any series of operations or tasks.

13 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course The three buses found in all computer systems. A bus is a common group of wires that interconnect components in a computer system. The buses that interconnect the sections of a computer system transfer address, data, and control information between the microprocessor and its memory and I/O systems. The address bus requests a memory location from the memory or an I/O location from the I/O devices. If I/O is addressed, the address bus contains a 16-bit I/O address from 0000H through FFFFH. The data bus transfers information between the microprocessor and its memory and I/O address space. Data transfers vary in size, from 8 bits wide to 64 bits wide in various members of the Intel microprocessor family. The control bus contains lines that select the memory or I/O and cause them to perform a read or write operation.

14 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course Block diagram of a computer system showing address, data, and control bus.

15 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course The microprocessor bus and memory sizes MicroprocessorData Bus Address Bus Memory Size M M M M M G G Pentium Pro643664G Pentium II64324G Pentium II, III, G

16 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course The physical memory systems of the 8086 through 80486

17 Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course The physical memory systems of the Pentium II through Pentium IV


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