8The Pentium Evaluation (1986)First 32-bit microprocessor, 32-bit address and data bus, 4GB Memory, Multitask(1989)Package (proc. + coproc + 8KB cache), pipeliningPentium (1993)16 KB cache (8 KB Inst. cache + 8 KB Data cache), 64-bit data bus, 2 Execution Unit, Superscalar- Pentium Pro (95)16 KB L1 cache, 256 KB L2 cache, 3 Execution Unit, More Superscalar- Pentium II (1997)On-board 32 KB L1 cache, 512 KB L2 cache, MMX technology
9The Pentium Evaluation - Pentium III (99)Additional FP instructions to support 3D graphics.- Pentium IV (2001)Additional FP and other enhancements for multimedia.ItaniumThis new generation of Intel processor makes use of a 64-bit organization with the IA-64 architecture.
10Compare between the 80486 through Pentium 4 microprocessor.
12The purpose of the microprocessor in a microprocessor-based computer system At the heart of the microprocessor-based computer system is the microprocessor integrated circuit. The microprocessor, sometimes referred to as the CPU (central processing unit), is the controlling element in a computer system. The microprocessor controls memory and I/O through a series of connections called buses.The microprocessor performs three main tasks for the computer system:data transfer between itself and the memory or I/O systems.simple arithmetic and logic operations.program flow via simple decisions. Albeit these are simple tasks, but through them, the microprocessor performs virtually any series of operations or tasks.
13The three buses found in all computer systems. A bus is a common group of wires that interconnect components in a computer system. The buses that interconnect the sections of a computer system transfer address, data, and control information between the microprocessor and its memory and I/O systems.The address bus requests a memory location from the memory or an I/O location from the I/O devices. If I/O is addressed, the address bus contains a 16-bit I/O address from 0000H through FFFFH.The data bus transfers information between the microprocessor and its memory and I/O address space. Data transfers vary in size, from 8 bits wide to 64 bits wide in various members of the Intel microprocessor family.The control bus contains lines that select the memory or I/O and cause them to perform a read or write operation.
14Block diagram of a computer system showing address, data, and control bus.
15The microprocessor bus and memory sizes Data BusAddress BusMemory Size808616201M808888018680188802862416M80386324G80486Pentium Pro643664GPentium IIPentium II, III, 4
16The physical memory systems of the 8086 through 80486
17The physical memory systems of the Pentium II through Pentium IV