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© 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Introduction zWhat are embedded systems? zChallenges in embedded computing system design.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Introduction zWhat are embedded systems? zChallenges in embedded computing system design."— Presentation transcript:

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2 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Introduction zWhat are embedded systems? zChallenges in embedded computing system design. zDesign methodologies.

3 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Definition zEmbedded system: any device that includes a programmable computer but is not itself a general-purpose computer. zTake advantage of application characteristics to optimize the design: ydon’t need all the general-purpose bells and whistles.

4 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Embedding a computer CPU mem input output analog embedded computer

5 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Examples zPersonal digital assistant (PDA). zPrinter. zCell phone. zAutomobile: engine, brakes, dash, etc. zTelevision. zHousehold appliances. zPC keyboard (scans keys).

6 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Early history zLate 1940’s: MIT Whirlwind computer was designed for real-time operations. yOriginally designed to control an aircraft simulator. zFirst microprocessor was Intel 4004 in early 1970’s. zHP-35 calculator used several chips to implement a microprocessor in 1972.

7 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Early history, cont’d. zAutomobiles used microprocessor-based engine controllers starting in 1970’s. yControl fuel/air mixture, engine timing, etc. yMultiple modes of operation: warm-up, cruise, hill climbing, etc. yProvides lower emissions, better fuel efficiency.

8 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Microprocessor varieties zMicrocontroller: includes I/O devices, on- board memory. zDigital signal processor (DSP): microprocessor optimized for digital signal processing. zTypical embedded word sizes: 8-bit, 16- bit, 32-bit.

9 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Application examples zSimple control: front panel of microwave oven, etc. zCanon EOS 3 has three microprocessors. y32-bit RISC CPU runs autofocus and eye control systems. zAnalog TV: channel selection, etc. zDigital TV: programmable CPUs + hardwired logic.

10 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Automotive embedded systems zToday’s high-end automobile may have 100 microprocessors: y4-bit microcontroller checks seat belt; ymicrocontrollers run dashboard devices; y16/32-bit microprocessor controls engine.

11 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components BMW 850i brake and stability control system zAnti-lock brake system (ABS): pumps brakes to reduce skidding. zAutomatic stability control (ASC+T): controls engine to improve stability. zABS and ASC+T communicate. yABS was introduced first---needed to interface to existing ABS module.

12 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components BMW 850i, cont’d. brake sensor brake sensor brake sensor brake sensor ABS hydraulic pump

13 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Characteristics of embedded systems zSophisticated functionality. zReal-time operation. zLow manufacturing cost. zLow power. zDesigned to tight deadlines by small teams.

14 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Functional complexity zOften have to run sophisticated algorithms or multiple algorithms. yCell phone, laser printer. zOften provide sophisticated user interfaces.

15 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Real-time operation zMust finish operations by deadlines. yHard real time: missing deadline causes failure. ySoft real time: missing deadline results in degraded performance. zMany systems are multi-rate: must handle operations at widely varying rates.

16 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Non-functional requirements zMany embedded systems are mass- market items that must have low manufacturing costs. yLimited memory, microprocessor power, etc. zPower consumption is critical in battery- powered devices. yExcessive power consumption increases system cost even in wall-powered devices.

17 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Design teams zOften designed by a small team of designers. zOften must meet tight deadlines. y6 month market window is common. yCan’t miss back-to-school window for calculator.

18 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Why use microprocessors? zAlternatives: field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), custom logic, etc. zMicroprocessors are often very efficient: can use same logic to perform many different functions. zMicroprocessors simplify the design of families of products.

19 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components The performance paradox zMicroprocessors use much more logic to implement a function than does custom logic. zBut microprocessors are often at least as fast: yheavily pipelined; ylarge design teams; yaggressive VLSI technology.

20 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Power zCustom logic is a clear winner for low power devices. zModern microprocessors offer features to help control power consumption. zSoftware design techniques can help reduce power consumption.

21 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Challenges in embedded system design zHow much hardware do we need? yHow big is the CPU? Memory? zHow do we meet our deadlines? yFaster hardware or cleverer software? zHow do we minimize power? yTurn off unnecessary logic? Reduce memory accesses?

22 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Challenges, etc. zDoes it really work? yIs the specification correct? yDoes the implementation meet the spec? yHow do we test for real-time characteristics? yHow do we test on real data? zHow do we work on the system? yObservability, controllability? yWhat is our development platform?

23 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Design methodologies zA procedure for designing a system. zUnderstanding your methodology helps you ensure you didn’t skip anything. zCompilers, software engineering tools, computer-aided design (CAD) tools, etc., can be used to: yhelp automate methodology steps; ykeep track of the methodology itself.

24 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Design goals zPerformance. yOverall speed, deadlines. zFunctionality and user interface. zManufacturing cost. zPower consumption. zOther requirements (physical size, etc.)

25 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Levels of abstraction requirements specification architecture component design system integration

26 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Top-down vs. bottom-up zTop-down design: ystart from most abstract description; ywork to most detailed. zBottom-up design: ywork from small components to big system. zReal design uses both techniques.

27 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Stepwise refinement zAt each level of abstraction, we must: yanalyze the design to determine characteristics of the current state of the design; yrefine the design to add detail.

28 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Requirements zPlain language description of what the user wants and expects to get. zMay be developed in several ways: ytalking directly to customers; ytalking to marketing representatives; yproviding prototypes to users for comment.

29 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Functional vs. non- functional requirements zFunctional requirements: youtput as a function of input. zNon-functional requirements: ytime required to compute output; ysize, weight, etc.; ypower consumption; yreliability; yetc.

30 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Our requirements form

31 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Example: GPS moving map requirements zMoving map obtains position from GPS, paints map from local database. lat: lon: I-78 Scotch Road

32 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components GPS moving map needs zFunctionality: For automotive use. Show major roads and landmarks. zUser interface: At least 400 x 600 pixel screen. Three buttons max. Pop-up menu. zPerformance: Map should scroll smoothly. No more than 1 sec power-up. Lock onto GPS within 15 seconds. zCost: $500 street price = approx. $100 cost of goods sold.

33 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components GPS moving map needs, cont’d. zPhysical size/weight: Should fit in dashboard. zPower consumption: Current draw comparable to CD player.

34 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components GPS moving map requirements form

35 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Specification zA more precise description of the system: yshould not imply a particular architecture; yprovides input to the architecture design process. zMay include functional and non-functional elements. zMay be executable or may be in mathematical form for proofs.

36 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components GPS specification zShould include: yWhat is received from GPS; ymap data; yuser interface; yoperations required to satisfy user requests; ybackground operations needed to keep the system running.

37 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Architecture design zWhat major components go satisfying the specification? zHardware components: yCPUs, peripherals, etc. zSoftware components: ymajor programs and their operations. zMust take into account functional and non-functional specifications.

38 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components GPS moving map block diagram GPS receiver search engine renderer user interface database display

39 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components GPS moving map hardware architecture GPS receiver CPU panel I/O display frame buffer memory

40 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components GPS moving map software architecture position database search renderer timer user interface pixels

41 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Designing hardware and software components zMust spend time architecting the system before you start coding. zSome components are ready-made, some can be modified from existing designs, others must be designed from scratch.

42 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components System integration zPut together the components. yMany bugs appear only at this stage. zHave a plan for integrating components to uncover bugs quickly, test as much functionality as early as possible.

43 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Summary zEmbedded computers are all around us. yMany systems have complex embedded hardware and software. zEmbedded systems pose many design challenges: design time, deadlines, power, etc. zDesign methodologies help us manage the design process.


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