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Microprocessor-based Systems Prof. Dr. eng. Sebestyen Gheorghe Computers Department

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Presentation on theme: "Microprocessor-based Systems Prof. Dr. eng. Sebestyen Gheorghe Computers Department"— Presentation transcript:

1 Microprocessor-based Systems Prof. Dr. eng. Sebestyen Gheorghe Computers Department

2 2 Content Introduction: short history &some concepts The main structure of a computer: CPU, ALU, instruction execution strategies Microprocessors Specialized microprocessors (microcontrollers and DSPs) Communication Buses Memory design Memory hierarchies (cache, virtual memory) Input/Output interfaces Interrupt system Direct memory access Advanced computer architectures: –RISC –parallel and distributed systems

3 3 References Dancea I, - Calculatoare electronice – 1975 Nedevschi S. - Microprocesoare – 1994 Pusztai s.a, - Calculatoare numerice – Indrumator de lucrari de laborator Sztoianov E.s.a. - De la poarta TTL la microprocesor Tanenbaum A.S. - Structured Computer Architecture –1990 Gorgan D, Sebestyen G.- Arhitectura calculatoarelor – 1997 Gorgan D. Sebestyen G. - Structura calculatoarelor – 2000 Gorgan D. Sebestyen G. – Proiectarea calculatoarelor www. ??? AOA - The Art of Assembly Programming Course and Labs on-line: –http://users.utcluj.ro/~sebestyen/cursuri_lab.htm

4 4 Short history Generations 0 – mechanical computers – (??-1940) –?? - abacus –17 th – 18 century – arithmetical computing devices Pascal – device for adding and subtraction Leibnitz – device for basic arithmetical operations (+,-,*,/) –19 th century - Ch. Babbage (Cambridge) – differential and than analytical machine (Ada Byron-prima programmer) main parts: memory, computing unit, card reader and puncher a computer like a mill – processing data is like processing materials –beginning of the 20 th century Konrad Zuse – electro-mechanical computers –basic elements: relays John Athanasoff –proposed the binary counting system for computers H. Aiken – Mark I, II –computers made of relays Ada Byron

5 5 First generation – –technology: electronic tubes – – P. Eckert & J. Mauchley – ENIAC – the first functional computer !!!! tubs, 1500 relays, 30 tones –J. von Neumann – IAS the first scientist who wrote a book on computers defined the classical computer model with 5 components: –memory, control unit, arithmetical and logical unit, input device(s), output device(s) –the idea of memorized program –Shanonn – information theory defined the metrics for information: the bit information = the opposite of entropy –Alan Turring – coding and decoding systems Colossus – the Turring machine –other versions: EDVAC, ILLIAC, MANIAC, Wirlwind, UNIVAC –IBM 701,704,709 – first commercial computers –CIFA, MECIPT – Romanian versions

6 6 First computer generation Eckart&Mauchley John von Neumann UNIVAC Shanonn

7 7 First computer generation ENIAC ADVAC IBM 701

8 8 Second generation – –technology: transistor –Shockley&Brattain – first transistor (Bell labs) –first computer with transistors: TX-0 –IBM 7090 – transistorized version, IBM 1401 –Wirlwind – MIT –PDP-1, PDP-8, made by DEC company –CDC 6600 – first parallel computer –CETA, DACICC (Ghe. Farkas, L. Negrescu) – Romanian computers TX-0PDP-1First transistor

9 9 3 rd generation – –technology: integrated circuits –computer families: mainframes: IBM 360, IBM 370 mini-computers: PDP 11 –Romanian computers: Felix c-256, c-512, c-32 Independent, Coral – clones of PDP-11 –improvements: speed reliability small dimensions high capacity memories (16k-512k) new peripheral devices (floppy disk, hard disk) display as operating consol (PDP11)

10 10 3 rd generation First integrated circuit Apollo HP Computer HP (1972) Seymour – LOGO 1967

11 11 4 th generation ?? –technology: VLSI advantages: speed, high integration ratio, high reliability, small costs and dimensions –first microprocessor - Intel 4004 !!!! –high capacity memory circuits: ROM, RAM, DRAM (1-16ko) –first microprocessor-based microcomputers –first computers for personal use: home-computers: ZX81, Spectrum PCs: IBM-PC, XT, AT, Apple, Machintosh –Romanian computers: M18 series, PRAE, aMIC, Felix PC, Telerom-PC (Sebestyen, Electrosigma)

12 12 4 th generation Intel 4004 IBM-PC Apple

13 13 4 th generation Portable computer (Osborn) Computer with TV set as display IBM PS2 Motorola 68040

14 14 4 th generation Bill GatesSteve Jobs si Steve Wozniak

15 15 Microprocessor’s evolution 1971I40044 bitifirst μP 1972I80088 biti16koFirst μP on 8 bits biti64koFirst successful μP , biti1Mo First μP on 16 bits, bases for the first PC biti16Mo PC-AT biti4GoFirst μP on 32 bits biti4 GoIncorporated FPU 1993Pentium32 biti4Gopipeline 1995P. Pro32 biti64 GoP6 super-pipeline architecture 1997P. II32 biti64 GoMMX technology 1999P. III32 biti70 ToSSE2 technology 2002P. IV32 biti70 ToNetBurst architecture 2004P. IV64 biti70 ToHyper-threading technology 2006Core 264 biti70 ToMulticore architecture (2 cores/chip) 2007Dual Core64 biti70 To2 processors/chip I5, I764 biti70 To, 8Mo L3 cache Nehalem architecture, multicore and hyper-threading 4cores/8 multithread cache 8Mo (L3) 2011Sandy Bridge

16 16 Microprocessor’s evolution Other microprocessor families: –Motorola: 6800 (8 biti), (16 biti), 68020, (32 biti), –Zilog: Z80, Z8000 –Texas Instruments: - digital signal processors: TMS320c10/20/30/50/80 –Microchip: microcontrollers: PIC12/16/18 –MIPS, ARM, etc.

17 Pentium 4 ‘486 ‘386 ‘286 Pentium 8080 Moor’s law

18 18 Tendencies and perspectives increase of integration ration –smaller switching elements (transistors): 45->35nm –increase of switching elements’ number processors - over 1 billion de transistors memory – over billion power reduction –intelligent power distribution –dynamic power control: energy where and when it is needed –frequency limitation multi-core and multi-thread architectures –from 2 cores/chip to 128 cores and more –symmetric and asymmetric architectures (see Intel and Power PC) network-on-chip –network communication inside the chip instead of parallel buses

19 19 Tendencies and perspectives memory hierarchies –more cache memory levels (inside the processor) –virtual memory –access request anticipation external memories of silicon –no more hard and floppy disks of DVDs, flash instead multi-processor architectures –parallel architectures –distributed architectures computer networks –Interne – an indispensable computer resource –wireless networks mobile and portable computers: –laptops, graphic tablets –PDA, GPS –intelligent phones

20 20 Computer's performance parameters Clock frequency, –Higher clock frequency = higher performance –Doubled every 24 month, until 2005 –Limited by the power consumption and disipation –Today – 2-3GHz Number of Cycles Per Second – CPI –Number if clock cycles for executing an instruction –Older computers: cycles –New processors: 1, 0.5, 0.25 CPI Number of instructions per second –MIPS, FLOPS – million of instructions per second

21 21 Computer's performance parameters Execution time of a program, –See Benchmarks execution time of a transaction set –Read-modify-save operations executed on databases in a concurrent way Memory capacity and speed –Gbytes, Tbytes –Access time: 70ns, 15ns, 0.1ns I/O capabilities –HDD throughput Communication performances –bandwidth and speed

22 22 A microprocessor-based computer system Simplified scheme: μPμP Memory I/O interface I/O dev. Address Data Commands

23 23 Structure of a Personal Computer (PC) μPμP Chipset N Chipset S SVGA AGP PCI Mem Net Keyboard Mouse

24 24 The multi-layer structure of a computer more abstraction levels/layers more access layers to the computer’s resources virtual machines: –a programming language –a set of functionalities –ex: Java Virtual Machine, BASIC machine, etc. why multi-layer: –easier and more efficient programming –different kind of users –complexity reduction through abstraction and functional decomposition

25 25 Multi-layered computer structure Application High level language Assembly language Operating system Conventional machine Microprogramming Digital circuites/hardware Translation Interpretation Interpretation (micro-program sequences) Interpretation (System calls) Decoding Translation (compile) Translation and interpretation (aggregate, compile) ISA

26 26


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