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kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 1 University of Kashan Department of Computer Engineering MicroProcessors & MicroControlers H. Sabaghian.

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Presentation on theme: "kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 1 University of Kashan Department of Computer Engineering MicroProcessors & MicroControlers H. Sabaghian."— Presentation transcript:

1 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 1 University of Kashan Department of Computer Engineering MicroProcessors & MicroControlers H. Sabaghian B. Spring 2006

2 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 2 Text Books  Microcontroller 8051 Author: Mohammad ali Mazidi Translator: Dr. Sepidnam  The 8051 Microcontroller Author: Iscott Makenzi Translator: Dr. Seyed Razi Edition : 3

3 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 3 Lec note 1 Introduction

4 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 4 outline  Microprocessor  Micro-computer  Microcontroller  3_Bus (Data, Address, Control)  I/O  Memory

5 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 5 Microprocessor (µP)(MPU)  µP = CPU on a single chip  Components of CPU  Registers: Temporary storage locations for program instruction or data.  The Arithmetic Logic unit (ALU): performs both arithmetic and logical operations  Timing and Control Circuits: keeps all working together in the right time sequence  Bus: n_bit (internal) path for data exchange

6 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 6 Microprocessor  Microprocessor=µP=MPU  Tasks  processing data  controlling all components make µP the µComputer system  µP executes instructions in memory  Fetch, Decode, Execute

7 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 7 Microcomputers  Micro-computer (µ-Computer)  small computer  specifically for data acquisition and control applications

8 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 8 Microcomputers  All Microcomputers consist of (at least) :  Microprocessor Unit (µP)  Program Memory (ROM)  Data Memory (RAM)  Input / Output ports (IO)  Bus System (External)  (and Software)  MPU is the brain of microcomputer

9 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 9 The Input/Output (I/O) System  I/O links MPU to outside world.  Input port : a circuit through which an external device can send signals (data?) to the MPU.  Output port is a circuit that allows the MPU to send signals (data?) to external devices.  I/O ports connect both digital and analogue devices by DAC and ADC

10 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 10 Bus  A common communications pathway that carry information between the various elements of system  The term BUS refers to  a group of wires  or conduction tracks on a printed circuit board (PCB) though which binary information is transferred  Subsystems are connected through BUS together

11 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 11 3_Bus  There are three main bus grouPs  ADDRESS BUS  DATA BUS  CONTROL BUS

12 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 12 Data Bus  The Data Bus carries the data which is transferred throughout the system. ( bi-directional)  Examples of data transfers  Program instructions being read from memory into MPU.  Data being sent from MPU to I/O port  Data being read from I/O port going to MPU  Results from MPU sent to Memory  These are called read and write operations

13 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 13 Address Bus  Address = binary number that identifies a specific memory storage location or I/O port involved in a data transfer  Address Bus = pathway transmit address to memory or I/O port.  Address Bus is unidirectional (one way): addresses are always issued by the MPU

14 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 14 Control Bus  Control Bus = grouP of control signals  Control signals are unidirectional, and are mainly outputs from the MPU.  provide synchronization (timing control) between MPU and other components.  Example  RD: (read signal) read data into MPU  WR: (write signal) write data from MPU

15 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 15 Main memory  Memory  Stores programs  Provides data to the MPU  Accepts result from the MPU for storage  Main memory Types  ROM : read only memory. Contains program (Firmware). does not lose its contents when power is removed (Non-volatile)  RAM: random access memory (read/write memory) used as variable data, loses contents when power is removed volatile. When power up will contain random data values

16 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 16 Read-Only Memory  µP can read instructions from ROM quickly  Cannot write new data to the ROM  ROM remembers the data, even after power cycled  When power is turned on, the microprocessor will start fetching instructions from ROM (bootstrap )

17 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 17 Available ROMs  Masked ROM or just ROM  PROM or programmable ROM(once only)  EPROM (erasable via ultraviolet light) =UVROM  Flash  re-writable about 10000 times  usually must write a whole block not just 1 or 2 bytes,  slow writing fast reading  EEPROM (electrically erasable ROM)  fast writing slow reading  can program millions of times  useless for storing a program  good for save configuration information.

18 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 18 ROM A0 A1 A2 Am D0 Dn D1 D2 n+1 bit Data Capacity : m+1 bit Address : Output Enable connect to RD of µP : Chip Enable to Address decoder ROM PROM EEPROM

19 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 19 ROM Read Timing A0-Am D0-Dn OE falls to data valid Addr valid to data valid

20 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 20 27XX EPROM 16 kbit 2 kbyte 32 kbit 4 kbyte 64 kbit 8 kbyte PGM and VPP are used to programming

21 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 21 27XXX EPROM 128 kbit 16 kbyte 256 kbit 32 kbyte 512 kbit 64 kbyte 1024 kbit 128 kbyte

22 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 22 256 kbit 32 kbyte 64 kbit 8 kbyte 1026 kbit 128 kbyte 4096 kbit 512 kbyte 16 kbit 2 kbyte 28XX E2PROM

23 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 23 RAM (Random Access Memory)  µP can read the data from RAM quickly  µP can write new data to RAM quickly  RAM forgets its data if power is turned off  Two type is available :  Static RAM(SRAM): ff base, fast, expensive, low cap/vol, applied for cache, no refresh  Dynamic RAM (DRAM): cap base, slow, low cost high capacity/volume, applied for main memory(pc) need refresh.

24 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 24 RAM(Static) A0 A1 A2 Am D0 Dn D1 D2 n+1 bit Data Capacity : m+1 bit Address : Chip Select to Address decoder RAM : Read signal connect to MemRD of µP : Write signal connect to MemWR of µP Data bus is Bidirectional

25 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 25 Static RAM

26 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 26 Dynamic RAM

27 hsabaghianb @ kashanu.ac.ir Microprocessors 1- 27 Dynamic RAM  Write : Charge bitline HIGH or LOW and set wordline HIGH  Read : Bit line is precharged to a voltage halfway between HIGH and LOW and then the word line is set HIGH.  Sense Amp Detects change  Reads are destructive (Must follow with a write)  Address Buffer


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