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Microprocessor Dr. Rabie A. Ramadan Al-Azhar University Lecture 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Microprocessor Dr. Rabie A. Ramadan Al-Azhar University Lecture 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Microprocessor Dr. Rabie A. Ramadan Al-Azhar University Lecture 1

2 2 Class Materials Text book Ramesh S. Gaonkar, The Z80 Microprocessor architecture, Interfacing, Programming, and Design,. Term paper/Project Select your topic or your project (HW) as early as possible Group of max. 2 students 2

3 Schedule and Arrangement 2 Classes Weekly 1 Tutorial Weekly We may substitute one of the lectures by a tutorial according to the class requirements. 3

4 Participation You are expected to attend all of the lectures Exams will be based on the class materials Group Activities Very Important 4

5 Assignments and Quizzes Must be submitted on time Late assignments will be accepted within one week with substantial penalties One Quiz (15 minutes ) Every Week. Please come ready 5

6 Learning is a treasure whose keys are questions. So do not be afraid to ask. I have no problem saying, I made a mistake and the right thing is … or I do not know and I have to look it up 6

7 Lets Get Started 7

8 Computing Evolution We Have Come a Long Way!!

9 The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)  begins in 1938

10 Home computer as imagined more than 50 years ago

11 The Computer Evolution Mainframe Computer, 1960 The PC, 1980 Mobile Computer 1990 Sensor Platforms 2000 Smart Dust … Mini-Computer, 1970

12 Moore’s Law 1965 prediction by Intel cofounder Gordon Moore: The number of transistors that can be built on the same size piece of silicon will double every 18 months

13

14 year log (people per computer) Streaming Data to/from the Physical World Excerpted from ‘The Mote Revolution: Low Power Wireless Sensor Network’, UCB, Bell’s Law: New computing class every 10 years

15 Ubiquitous Computing: A Vision Ahead of his Time The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it. Mark Weiser, 1991

16 Where is the Microprocessor ? It is inside of every device that we have such as computer, printers, mobile, etc.. 16

17 What is the Microprocessor? Multipurpose, programmable logic device. Reads Instructions from the Memory Accepts binary input data Process the data according to the instructions Produces Output 17

18 A typical Programmable Machine/System Microprocessor, Memory, and I/O 18 Microprocessor Memory I/O

19 The System Components Hardware  Physical Devices Program  a group of instructions preformed by the microprocessor Software  a group of programs 19 Microprocessor Memory I/O

20 Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller A microcontroller contains a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Microcontrollers include an integrated CPU, memory (a small amount of RAM, program memory, or both) and peripherals capable of input and output. Microprocessor only contains a CPU (the kind used in a PC). In addition to the usual arithmetic and logic elements of a general purpose microprocessor, The microcontroller includes all of the required components on one chip. The microprocessor includes some of the components on a chip and other components are used as peripherals. 20

21 What numbering System a Microprocessor Uses? Binary System A Bit is 0 or 1 The processor processes a group of bits called Word. The word size could be: 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, or 64-bits Therefore, the processor is named after the word size. e.g. We say “ 8-bit Microprocessor” 21

22 A Microprocessor as a Programmable Device The piano is a programmable machine With its key, we can generate notes The Microprocessor has different instructions : Can be combined in different ways to generate different programs. Instructions are stored in a Memory 22

23 The Memory 23

24 Word Addressing 24 Given M words, how many bits l are required to address them? Example: to address 64 MB, we need

25 Memory Organization Viewed as a large, single-dimension array, with an address A memory address is an index into the array "Byte addressing" means that successive addresses are one byte apart bits of data

26 Types of Memory Cache Memory Serves as a buffer for frequently accessed data Small  High Cost RAM (Main Memory) Stores programs and data that the computer needs when executing a program Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Uses Tiny Capacitors Needs to be recharged every few milliseconds to keep the stored data Static RAM (SRAM) Holds its data as long as the power is on D Flip Flop

27 Types of Memory (Cont.) ROM Stores critical information necessary to operate the system. Hardwired  can not be programmed Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM) Can be programmed once using appropriate equipment Erasable PROM (EPROM) Can be programmed with special tool It has to be totally erased to be reprogrammed Electrical Erasable PROM (EEPROM) No special tools required Can erase a portion

28 Memory Hierarchy The idea Hide the slower memory behind the fast memory Cost and performance play major roles in selecting the memory.

29 Hit Vs. Miss Hit The requested data resides in a given level of memory. Miss The requested data is not found in the given level of memory Hit rate The percentage of memory accesses found in a given level of memory. Miss rate The percentage of memory accesses not found in a given level of memory.


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