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Introduction to Microprocessor Systems ECE511: Microprocessor & Digital System.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Microprocessor Systems ECE511: Microprocessor & Digital System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Microprocessor Systems ECE511: Microprocessor & Digital System

2 What we are going to learn in this session: What is a microprocessor system. History of microprocessors. Components inside the microprocessor system:  Component description.  Function.  Arrangement. The CPU execution cycle.  What is it.  How the cycle works.

3 Introduction µP is a complex, powerful device:  Able to process huge amounts of data.  Built using transistors on silicon die.  Needs external components to support operation. Used in wide variety of applications.  Take advantage of processing power. Microcomputer system – support µP operations.

4 History of Computers

5 Has undergone significant improvements:  4 generations until now.  Tied to development of electronics, semiconductors. What’s next?  Conventional computing: Advancements in semiconductor technology. Smaller, faster, less power.  Unconventional computing: Quantum computer. Chemical computer. Molecular computer.

6 History of Computers Vacuum Tube TransistorICBetter IC technology G1G2G3G4

7 History of Computers First Generation ( ):  Vacuum Tubes as switches.  Magnetic drums as memory.  Very big, unreliable, slow.  ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer ), UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic Computer ).

8 First Generation Computers Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) Vacuum Tubes

9 History of Computers Second Generation ( ):  After invention of transistors.  Smaller, faster, cheaper.  Limited to military and business use.

10 Second Generation Computers Transistor circuit Vacuum tube circuit

11 History of Microprocessors Third Generation ( ):  After invention of Integrated Circuits (IC). Many transistors can be packed into IC.  Intel 8008, Intel  Medium Scale Integration (MSI) and Large Scale Integration (LSI).

12 Early Intel Microprocessors

13 Third Generation Computers Laptop PC

14 History of Computers Fourth Generation (1971-now):  Improvements in IC technology, µP design.  More transistors  more processing power.  Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI). Intel Montecito Itanium: 1 bln. transistors.  Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC).  64-Bit microprocessors.

15 Fourth Generation Computers

16 Comparison ComputerSpeedMemoryCost UNIVAC (1 st Gen.) Pentium III (4 th Gen.) DEC PDP-8 (3 nd Gen.) 1.3 kHz 1 MHz 500 MHz 1MB 6 kB 128 MB $1.6 million $20,000 $700 $47, kB IBM 1401 (2 nd Gen.) 2.2 kHz

17 Microprocessor Systems

18 Complete system built around microprocessor.  CPU.  Memory.  I/O: disk drives, keyboard, mouse.  System Bus.  Supporting circuitry. CPU as the “brain” – controls actions of all components.

19 Microprocessor System - PC ROM KeyboardMouseHDD FloppyRAM CD-ROM Supporting Circuitry CPU

20 Microprocessor System - Calculator Keypad Memory Power SupplyLCD Display CPU

21 Computer Interface

22 A µP-based system consists of many components:  CPU.  Memory.  I/O: disk drives, keyboard, mouse.  System Bus.  Supporting circuitry. All components communicate using System Bus.

23 Block Diagram Parallel I/OSerial I/O Interrupt Circuit TimingCPUMemory System Bus

24 The CPU “Master” of all components. Job:  Get instructions from memory.  Execute instructions.  Perform calculations (Co-processor).  Control bus operations. CPU

25 The CPU CPU consists of:  ALU (Arithmetic/Logic Unit): Performs arithmetic/ logic computations.  CU (Control Unit): Responsible to retrieve instructions, analyze, then execute.  Registers: Fast internal storage Used to temporarily store addresses, data, processor status.

26 System Bus Communication “highway” for all components. Contains:  Data lines.  Address lines.  Control lines: regulate information transfer, interrupts, error signals.

27 Memory Stores instructions and data for CPU. Each memory location given unique address.  CPU refers to address to access. Types:  Read-Only Memory (ROM).  Random-Access Memory (RAM).  Non-Volatile Memory (NVM). Memory

28 RAM, ROM and NVM Memory NVM RAM ROM Stores start-up instructions and critical system data and variables. Stores general data and applications

29 ROM Read-Only Memory:  Data can be read, but cannot be written (read-only).  Contents stay without power (non-volatile).  Usually contains basic start-up instructions, data.  Contents hard-wired during manufacturing.  Newer versions can be reprogrammed: PROM: Fuse & anti-fuse. EPROM: UV light. EEPROM: Electrical current.

30 ROM Examples Quartz Window EEPROM Programmer EPROM

31 NVM Non-Volatile Memory Contents can be read and written. Contents stay without power (non-volatile). Advantages:  Keeps memory even with no power.  Data is protected against blackouts.  Rewriteable. Disadvantages:  Slower than RAM.

32 RAM Random Access Memory. Contents can be read and written. Loses data without electrical power (volatile). Advantages:  Programs can be loaded and reloaded.  Larger capacity. Disadvantages:  Requires power, refresh cycles.

33 RAM vs. ROM Computer is turned on CPU looks for instructions from memory RAM is still empty because the computer has just been started. CPU loads instructions from ROM.

34 RAM vs. ROM ROM only has basic functions to start the computer. RAM loads more advanced functions, such as the OS.

35 Timing Circuit Timing Synchronizes all components in the system.  All components refer to the clock timing for operations. Generates square waves at constant intervals. Crystal oscillator + timing circuitry. Higher clock speed allow computers to function faster.

36 Crystal Oscillator Symbol Equivalent Circuit Sample

37 Clock Signal TT T

38 Clock Signal vs. Processing Speed Instruction CLR.W D7 takes 4 cycles to complete. time Slow clock speed Fast clock speed

39 I/O Input/Output. Connects µP with external devices:  Add functionality to µP. Interfaces with µP using ports. Examples:  Keyboard.  Mouse.  Display monitor.

40 How do ports connect to system bus? Built into board Using card slots.

41 Serial I/O Sends/receives data sequentially across 2 channels.  One for receive, one for transmit. Connects using serial ports. Advantages:  Less crosstalk. Disadvantages:  Slow.  Needs special circuit to convert back to parallel (UART – Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter). Serial I/O

42 Serial Port

43 Parallel I/O Sends/receives data across multiple lines at one time. Connects using parallel ports. Advantages:  Faster than serial.  Simpler circuits – doesn’t need UART. Disadvantages:  Crosstalk. Parallel I/O

44 Parallel Port

45 Parallel vs. Serial I/O Serial Port Parallel Port Receive Transmit.... Receive/Transmit

46 UART UART To System BusFrom Device From System BusTo Device

47 Interrupt Circuit Allows other components to “interrupt” normal CPU operation:  Prioritize CPU tasks.  Error detection mechanism.  Accept inputs from devices – keystroke, mouse press. Depends on task importance:  Important tasks given higher interrupts.  Less important tasks queued.  CPU keeps track of current interrupt level. Interrupt Circuit

48 How Interrupts Work CPU Device 1.CPU is performing tasks normally. 2. Device has more important task that requires immediate attention. 3. Device requests interrupt from CPU. 4. CPU saves its current task so that it can return to it when the interrupt completes. 5. CPU services the interrupt. 6. CPU reloads saved task, and resumes normally.

49 Watchdog Monitor Watchdog monitor:  Special circuit - monitors the system for errors.  Informs the CPU.  CPU takes appropriate actions – reset system, halt processor. May work in two ways:  Constantly monitor the system, and sends signal if error detected.  Continuously sending signal to CPU after certain interval: If CPU receives signal, continues processing. If CPU doesn’t receive signal, something’s wrong.

50 How Watchdogs Work CPU Watchdog 1.CPU is performing tasks normally. 1. Watchdog monitors bus for errors. 2. If error detected, inform CPU. 3. CPU saves its current task so that it can return to it when error is resolved. 4. CPU fixes the error. 5. CPU reloads saved task, and resumes normally. 5. If error is too serious, CPU may reset/halt system.

51 CPU Execution Cycle

52 CPU executes instructions in endless fetch, decode, execute cycles. It only knows how to do three things:  Fetch instructions from somewhere.  Analyze instruction, get more data if necessary.  Execute instruction. Keeps track of instruction using Program Counter (PC):  Tells CPU location of next instruction.

53 Fetch, Decode, Execute Reset Fetch Decode Execute

54 Fetch – Step 1 Program Counter Instruction #1 $1001 $1009 $1008 $1007 $1006 $1005 $1004 $1003 $1002 $1000 Instruction #1 Instruction #2 Empty Data #1 Data #2 Data #3 $1000 Control CPUMemory Instruction Register Data Registers CPU gets instruction address from PC

55 Fetch – Step 2 Program Counter Instruction #1 $1001 $1009 $1008 $1007 $1006 $1005 $1004 $1003 $1002 $1000 Instruction #1 Instruction #2 Empty Data #1 Data #2 Data #3 $1000 Control CPUMemory Instruction Register Data Registers CPU outputs instruction address through Address Bus $1000 Address Bus

56 Fetch – Step 3 Program Counter Instruction #1 $1001 $1009 $1008 $1007 $1006 $1005 $1004 $1003 $1002 $1000 Instruction #1 Instruction #2 Empty Data #1 Data #2 Data #3 $1000 Control CPUMemory Instruction Register Data Registers Memory gets the instruction and sends in to CPU using Data Bus. Instruction #1 Data Bus

57 Fetch – Step 4 Program Counter Instruction #1 $1001 $1009 $1008 $1007 $1006 $1005 $1004 $1003 $1002 $1000 Instruction #1 Instruction #2 Empty Data #1 Data #2 Data #3 $1000 Control CPUMemory Instruction #1 Instruction Register Data Registers CPU stores instruction in Instruction Register

58 Fetch – Step 5 Program Counter Instruction #1 $1001 $1009 $1008 $1007 $1006 $1005 $1004 $1003 $1002 $1000 Instruction #1 Instruction #2 Empty Data #1 Data #2 Data #3 $1002 Control CPUMemory Instruction #1 Instruction Register Data Registers After instruction has been loaded, CPU updates Program Counter.

59 Decode – Step 1 Program Counter Instruction #1 $1001 $1009 $1008 $1007 $1006 $1005 $1004 $1003 $1002 $1000 Instruction #1 Instruction #2 Empty Data #1 Data #2 Data #3 $1002 Control CPUMemory Instruction #1 Instruction Register Data Registers CPU analyzes instructions before executing it. Type of instruction. Does the instruction require any data to perform calculations? Where are the data located?

60 Execute – Step 1 Program Counter Instruction #1 $1001 $1009 $1008 $1007 $1006 $1005 $1004 $1003 $1002 $1000 Instruction #1 Instruction #2 Empty Data #1 Data #2 Data #3 $1002 Control CPUMemory Instruction #1 Instruction Register Data Registers If instruction requires data from memory, data address is placed on address bus. $1007 Address Bus

61 Execute – Step 2 Program Counter Instruction #1 $1001 $1009 $1008 $1007 $1006 $1005 $1004 $1003 $1002 $1000 Instruction #1 Instruction #2 Empty Data #1 Data #2 Data #3 $1002 Control CPUMemory Instruction #1 Instruction Register Data Registers Memory gets the instruction and sends in to CPU using Data Bus. Data #1 Data Bus

62 Execute – Step 3 Program Counter Instruction #1 $1001 $1009 $1008 $1007 $1006 $1005 $1004 $1003 $1002 $1000 Instruction #1 Instruction #2 Empty Data #1 Data #2 Data #3 $1002 Control CPUMemory Instruction #1 Data #1 Instruction Register Data Registers CPU puts data inside internal data registers and execute instructions.

63 Execute – Step 4 Program Counter Instruction #1 $1001 $1009 $1008 $1007 $1006 $1005 $1004 $1003 $1002 $1000 Instruction #1 Instruction #2 Empty Data #1 Data #2 Data #3 $1002 Control CPUMemory Instruction #1 Data #1 Result #1 Instruction Register Data Registers If instruction wants to write data to memory, CPU puts its data and address on the bus. $1005 Address Bus Result #1 Data Bus

64 Execute – Step 5 Program Counter Instruction #1 $1001 $1009 $1008 $1007 $1006 $1005 $1004 $1003 $1002 $1000 Instruction #1 Instruction #2 Empty Result #1 Empty Data #1 Data #2 Data #3 $1002 Control CPUMemory Instruction #1 Data #1 Result #1 Instruction Register Data Registers Memory receives instructions and puts data in the location.

65 Conclusion

66 µP is a complex, powerful device:  Able to process huge amounts of data. µP-based systems provide supporting circuitry to support µP functions. Long history, advancements along with technology. Executes instructions from memory in endless loop.

67 The End Please read: Antonakos, pg. 2 – 10. Gilmore, pg. 1 – 5.


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