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George Mason University ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL FPGA Devices & FPGA Design Flow ECE 448 Lecture 5.

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Presentation on theme: "George Mason University ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL FPGA Devices & FPGA Design Flow ECE 448 Lecture 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 George Mason University ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL FPGA Devices & FPGA Design Flow ECE 448 Lecture 5

2 2 Required reading Spartan-6 FPGA Configurable Logic Block: User Guide  CLB Overview  Slice Description

3 3ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Block RAMs Configurable Logic Blocks I/O Blocks What is an FPGA? Block RAMs

4 4 Modern FPGA Graphics based on The Design Warrior’s Guide to FPGAs Devices, Tools, and Flows. ISBN Copyright © 2004 Mentor Graphics Corp. (www.mentor.com) Multipliers/DSP units RAM blocks Logic resources (#Logic resources, #Multipliers/DSP units, #RAM_blocks)

5 5ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Major FPGA Vendors SRAM-based FPGAs Xilinx, Inc. Altera Corp. Lattice Semiconductor Atmel Achronix Tabula Flash & antifuse FPGAs Microsemi SoC Products Group (formerly Actel Corp.) Quick Logic Corp. ~ 51% of the market ~ 34% of the market ~ 85%

6 6ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Xilinx  Primary products: FPGAs and the associated CAD software  Main headquarters in San Jose, CA  Fabless* Semiconductor and Software Company  UMC (Taiwan) {*Xilinx acquired an equity stake in UMC in 1996}  Seiko Epson (Japan)  TSMC (Taiwan)  Samsung (Korea) Programmable Logic Devices ISE Alliance and Foundation Series Design Software

7 TechnologyLow-costHigh- performance 220 nmVirtex 180 nmSpartan-II, Spartan-IIE 120/150 nmVirtex-II, Virtex-II Pro 90 nmSpartan-3Virtex-4 65 nmVirtex-5 45 nmSpartan-6 40 nmVirtex-6 28 nmArtix-7Virtex-7 Xilinx FPGA Families

8 8 FPGA Family

9 9ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Spartan-6 FPGA Family

10 George Mason University ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL CLB Structure

11 11ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL The Design Warrior’s Guide to FPGAs Devices, Tools, and Flows. ISBN Copyright © 2004 Mentor Graphics Corp. (www.mentor.com) General structure of an FPGA

12 12ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Xilinx Spartan-6 CLB

13 13ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Row & Column Relationship Between CLBs & Slices

14 14ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL SLICEX

15 15ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL 4-input LUT (Look-Up Table) (used in earlier families of FPGAs) Look-Up tables are primary elements for logic implementation Each LUT can implement any function of 4 inputs

16 16ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL 6-Input LUT of Spartan-6

17 17

18 18ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Reset and Set Configurations No set or reset Synchronous set Synchronous reset Asynchronous set (preset) Asynchronous reset (clear)

19 19ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Three Different Types of Slices 50%25%

20 20 SLICEL

21 21  Each CLB contains separate logic and routing for the fast generation of sum & carry signals Increases efficiency and performance of adders, subtractors, accumulators, comparators, and counters  Carry logic is independent of normal logic and routing resources Fast Carry Logic LSB MSB Carry Logic Routing

22 22 Accessing Carry Logic  All major synthesis tools can infer carry logic for arithmetic functions Addition (SUM <= A + B) Subtraction (DIFF <= A - B) Comparators (if A < B then…) Counters (count <= count +1)

23 23ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL SLICEM

24 24 The Design Warrior’s Guide to FPGAs Devices, Tools, and Flows. ISBN Copyright © 2004 Mentor Graphics Corp. (www.mentor.com) Xilinx Multipurpose LUT (MLUT) 64 x 1 ROM (logic) 64 x 1 RAM 32-bit SR

25 25 Single-port 64 x 1-bit RAM

26 26 Memories Built of Neighboring MLUTs Single-port 128 x 1-bit RAM: RAM128x1S Dual-port 64 x 1-bit RAM : RAM64x1D Memories built of 2 MLUTs: Memories built of 4 MLUTs: Single-port 256 x 1-bit RAM: RAM256x1S Dual-port 128 x 1-bit RAM: RAM128x1D Quad-port 64 x 1-bit RAM:RAM64x1Q Simple-dual-port 64 x 3-bit RAM:RAM64x3SDP (one address for read, one address for write)

27 27 Dual-port 64 x 1 RAM ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Dual-port 64 x 1-bit RAM : 64x1D Single-port 128 x 1-bit RAM: 128x1S

28 28 Total Size of Distributed RAM

29 29ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL MLUT as a 32-bit Shift Register (SRL32)

30 George Mason University ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Input/Output Blocks (IOBs)

31 31ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Basic I/O Block Structure D EC Q SR D EC Q SR D EC Q SR Three-State Control Output Path Input Path Three-State Output Clock Set/Reset Direct Input Registered Input FF Enable

32 32ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL IOB Functionality IOB provides interface between the package pins and CLBs Each IOB can work as uni- or bi-directional I/O Outputs can be forced into High Impedance Inputs and outputs can be registered advised for high-performance I/O Inputs can be delayed

33 George Mason University ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Spartan-6 Family Attributes

34 34ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Spartan-6 FPGA Family Members

35 35ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL FPGA device present on the Digilent Nexys 3 board XC6SLX16-CSG324C Spartan 6 family Size 324 pins Package type (Ball Chip-Scale) Commercial temperature range 0° C – 85° C Logic Optimized

36 George Mason University FPGA Design Flow

37 FPGA Design process (1) Design and implement a simple unit permitting to speed up encryption with RC5-similar cipher with fixed key set on 8031 microcontroller. Unlike in the experiment 5, this time your unit has to be able to perform an encryption algorithm by itself, executing 32 rounds….. Library IEEE; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; use ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all; entity RC5_core is port( clock, reset, encr_decr: in std_logic; data_input: in std_logic_vector(31 downto 0); data_output: out std_logic_vector(31 downto 0); out_full: in std_logic; key_input: in std_logic_vector(31 downto 0); key_read: out std_logic; ); end AES_core; Specification / Pseudocode VHDL description (Your Source Files) Functional simulation Post-synthesis simulation Synthesis On-paper hardware design (Block diagram & ASM chart)

38 FPGA Design process (2) Implementation Configuration Timing simulation On chip testing

39 39 Tools used in FPGA Design Flow Xilinx XST Design Synthesis Implementation Xilinx ISE VHDL code Netlist Bitstream Synplify Premier Functionally verified VHDL code

40 George Mason University Synthesis

41 41 Synthesis Tools … and others Synplify Premier Xilinx XST

42 42 architecture MLU_DATAFLOW of MLU is signal A1:STD_LOGIC; signal B1:STD_LOGIC; signal Y1:STD_LOGIC; signal MUX_0, MUX_1, MUX_2, MUX_3: STD_LOGIC; begin A1<=A when (NEG_A='0') else not A; B1<=B when (NEG_B='0') else not B; Y<=Y1 when (NEG_Y='0') else not Y1; MUX_0<=A1 and B1; MUX_1<=A1 or B1; MUX_2<=A1 xor B1; MUX_3<=A1 xnor B1; with (L1 & L0) select Y1<=MUX_0 when "00", MUX_1 when "01", MUX_2 when "10", MUX_3 when others; end MLU_DATAFLOW; VHDL description Circuit netlist Logic Synthesis

43 43 Circuit netlist (RTL view)

44 44 Mapping LUT2 LUT1 FF1 FF2 LUT0

45 George Mason University Implementation

46 46 Implementation After synthesis the entire implementation process is performed by FPGA vendor tools

47 47 Implementation

48 48 Translation UCF NGD Native Generic Database file Constraint Editor or Text Editor User Constraint File Circuit Netlist Timing Constraints Synthesis

49 49 Mapping LUT2 LUT1 FF1 FF2 LUT0

50 50 Placing CLB SLICES FPGA

51 51 Routing Programmable Connections FPGA

52 52 Configuration Once a design is implemented, you must create a file that the FPGA can understand This file is called a bit stream: a BIT file (.bit extension) The BIT file can be downloaded directly to the FPGA, or can be converted into a PROM file which stores the programming information

53 Two main stages of the FPGA Design Flow Synthesis Technologyindependent Technologydependent Implementation RTL Synthesis Map Place & Route Place & Route Configure - Code analysis - Derivation of main logic constructions - Technology independent optimization - Creation of “RTL View” - Mapping of extracted logic structures to device primitives - Technology dependent optimization - Application of “synthesis constraints” -Netlist generation - Creation of “Technology View” - Placement of generated netlist onto the device -Choosing best interconnect structure for the placed design -Application of “physical constraints” - Bitstream generation - Burning device

54 54 Synthesis Report Example – Resource Utilization (1) Device utilization summary: Selected Device : 6slx4tqg144-3 Slice Logic Utilization: Number of Slice Registers: 53 out of % Number of Slice LUTs: 163 out of % Number used as Logic: 163 out of % Slice Logic Distribution: Number of LUT Flip Flop pairs used: 198 Number with an unused Flip Flop: 145 out of % Number with an unused LUT: 35 out of % Number of fully used LUT-FF pairs: 18 out of 198 9% Number of unique control sets: 7

55 55 Synthesis Report Example – Resource Utilization (2) IO Utilization: Number of IOs: 43 Number of bonded IOBs: 43 out of % Specific Feature Utilization: Number of BUFG/BUFGCTRLs: 1 out of 16 6% Number of DSP48A1s: 5 out of 8 62%

56 56 Synthesis Report Example – Timing Timing Summary: Speed Grade: -3 Minimum period: 6.031ns (Maximum Frequency: MHz)

57 57 Map Report Example – Resource Utilization (1) Design Summary Slice Logic Utilization: Number of Slice Registers: 54 out of 4,800 1% Number used as Flip Flops: 53 Number used as Latches: 0 Number used as Latch-thrus: 0 Number used as AND/OR logics: 1 Number of Slice LUTs: 149 out of 2,400 6% Number used as logic: 148 out of 2,400 6% Number using O6 output only: 133 Number using O5 output only: 0 Number using O5 and O6: 15 Number used as ROM: 0 Number used as Memory: 0 out of 1,200 0% Number used exclusively as route-thrus: 1

58 58 Map Report Example – Resource Utilization (2) Slice Logic Distribution: Number of occupied Slices: 58 out of 600 9% Number of MUXCYs used: 32 out of 1,200 2% Number of LUT Flip Flop pairs used: 162 Number with an unused Flip Flop: 109 out of % Number with an unused LUT: 13 out of 162 8% Number of fully used LUT-FF pairs: 40 out of % Number of unique control sets: 7 Number of slice register sites lost to control set restrictions: 35 out of 4,800 1% IO Utilization: Number of bonded IOBs: 43 out of %

59 59 Map Report Example – Resource Utilization (3) Specific Feature Utilization: Number of RAMB16BWERs: 0 out of 12 0% Number of RAMB8BWERs: 0 out of 24 0% ……. Number of DSP48A1s: 5 out of 8 62% …….

60 60 Post-PAR Static Timing Report Clock to Setup on destination clock clk_i | Src:Rise| Src:Fall| Src:Rise| Src:Fall| Source Clock |Dest:Rise|Dest:Rise|Dest:Fall|Dest:Fall| clk_i | 7.530| | | |

61 61 PAR Report Constraint | Check | Worst Case | Best Case | Timing | Timing | | Slack | Achievable | Errors | Score Autotimespec constraint for clock net clk | SETUP | N/A| 7.530ns| N/A| 0 _i_BUFGP | HOLD | 0.457ns| | 0|

62 62 Timing Report (1) Timing constraint: Default period analysis for net "clk_i_BUFGP" 3354 paths analyzed, 309 endpoints analyzed, 0 failing endpoints 0 timing errors detected. (0 setup errors, 0 hold errors) Minimum period is 7.530ns Delay (setup path): 7.530ns (data path - clock path skew + uncertainty) Source: a_register/q_o_4 (FF) Destination: x_reg_inst/q_o_3 (FF) Data Path Delay: 7.453ns (Levels of Logic = 2) Clock Path Skew: ns ( ) Source Clock: clk_i_BUFGP rising Destination Clock: clk_i_BUFGP rising Clock Uncertainty: 0.035ns

63 63 Timing Report (2) Maximum Data Path at Slow Process Corner: a_register/q_o_4 to x_reg_inst/q_o_3 Location Delay type Delay(ns) Physical Resource Logical Resource(s) SLICE_X4Y36.AQ Tcko a_register/q_o a_register/q_o_4 DSP48_X0Y3.B4 net (fanout=21) a_register/q_o DSP48_X0Y3.M3 Tdspdo_B_M Mmult_mult_unsigned Mmult_mult_unsigned SLICE_X8Y39.C4 net (fanout=1) mult_unsigned SLICE_X8Y39.CLK Tas x_reg_inst/q_o Mmux_x_57 Mmux_x_4_f7_2 Mmux_x_2_f8_2 x_reg_inst/q_o_ Total 7.453ns (4.209ns logic, 3.244ns route) (56.5% logic, 43.5% route)

64 64 Timing Report (3) Delay (setup path): 7.484ns (data path - clock path skew + uncertainty) Source: a_register/q_o_7_1 (FF) Destination: x_reg_inst/q_o_3 (FF) Data Path Delay: 7.391ns (Levels of Logic = 2) Clock Path Skew: ns ( ) Source Clock: clk_i_BUFGP rising Destination Clock: clk_i_BUFGP rising Clock Uncertainty: 0.035ns Clock Uncertainty: 0.035ns ((TSJ^2 + TIJ^2)^1/2 + DJ) / 2 + PE Total System Jitter (TSJ): 0.070ns Total Input Jitter (TIJ): 0.000ns Discrete Jitter (DJ): 0.000ns Phase Error (PE): 0.000ns

65 65 Timing Report (4) Maximum Data Path at Slow Process Corner: a_register/q_o_7_1 to x_reg_inst/q_o_3 Location Delay type Delay(ns) Physical Resource Logical Resource(s) SLICE_X2Y33.AQ Tcko a_register/q_o_7_2 a_register/q_o_7_1 DSP48_X0Y3.B7 net (fanout=13) a_register/q_o_7_1 DSP48_X0Y3.M3 Tdspdo_B_M Mmult_mult_unsigned Mmult_mult_unsigned SLICE_X8Y39.C4 net (fanout=1) mult_unsigned SLICE_X8Y39.CLK Tas x_reg_inst/q_o Mmux_x_57 Mmux_x_4_f7_2 Mmux_x_2_f8_2 x_reg_inst/q_o_ Total 7.391ns (4.209ns logic, 3.182ns route) (56.9% logic, 43.1% route)


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