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Dalí Main-memory Storage Manager Tomasz Piech. Salvador Dalí - Persistence of Memory (1931)

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Presentation on theme: "Dalí Main-memory Storage Manager Tomasz Piech. Salvador Dalí - Persistence of Memory (1931)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dalí Main-memory Storage Manager Tomasz Piech

2 Salvador Dalí - Persistence of Memory (1931)

3 Introduction Dalí –Implemented at Bell Laboratories –Storage manager for persistent data –Architecture optimized for databases resident in main memory –Application – real-time billing and control of multimedia content deliver High transaction rates, low latency

4 Introduction Dalí Techniques –Direct access to data – direct pointers to information stored in dbase – high performance –No interprocess communication – communication with server only during dis/connection; concurrency, logging provided via shared memory –Fault-tolerant – advanced, multi-level transaction model; high concurrency indexing and storage

5 Introduction Dalí –Recovery from process failure in addition to system failure –Use of codewords and memory protection – integrity of data (discussed later) –Consistency of response time – key requirement for applications with memory-resident data –Designed for databases that fit into main memory (virtual will work but not as well)

6 Overview of Presentation Architecture Storage Transaction Management Fault Tolerance Concurrency Control Collections and Indexing Higher Level Interfaces

7 Architecture

8 Database files – user data, one or more exist in database System database files – database support related data, such as locks and logs Files opened by a process are directly mapped into its address space mmap files or shared-memory segments used to provide mapping

9 Layers of Abstraction Dalí architecture is organized to support the toolkit approach

10 Layers of Abstraction Toolkit approach –Logging can be turned off for data which need not be persistent –Locking can be turned off if data is private to a process Multiple interface levels –Low-level components are exposed to user for optimization

11 Storage

12 Pointers and Offsets Each process has a database-offset table –Specifies where in memory a file is mapped –Implemented as an array indexed by file id Primary Dalí pointer (p) –Dbase file local-identifier & offset within file –To dereference, add offset from p to virtual memory address from offset table Secondary pointer –Index in one file, store just the offset since location of file is known

13 Storage Allocation Motivation –Control data should be stored separately from user data protection of control data from stray pointers –Indirection should not exist at the lowest level Indirection adds a level of latching for each data access & increases path length for dereferecing itself Dalí exposes direct pointers to allocated data, provides time and space efficiency

14 Storage Allocation Motivation –Large objects should be stored contiguously Advantage is speed; recreating a file from smaller files takes away that advantage –Different recovery characteristics should be available for different regions of the database Not all data needs to be recovered from a crash Indexes can be rebuilt, etc.

15 Storage Allocation –Two levels of non-recovered data Zeroed memory – remains allocated but is zeroed Transient memory – data no longer allocated upon recovery

16 Segments and Chunks Segment –contiguous page-aligned unit of allocation; arbitrarily large; database files are comprised of segments Chunk –A collection of segments

17 Segments and Chunks

18 Allocators –Return standard Dalí pointers to allocated space within a chunk; indirection not imposed at storage manager level –No record of allocated space is retained 3 different allocators –Power-of-two – allocates buckets of size 2 i *m –Inline power-of-two – as above + free space list uses 1 st few bytes of each free block

19 Segments and Chunks Allocators (cont’d) –Coalescing allocator – merges adjacent free space & uses a free tree –Power of 2 inline faster but neither coalesces adjacent free space – fragmentation (thus fixed size records only) –Coalescing uses free tree – based on T-tree – to keep track of free space; logarithmic time for allocation and freeing

20 Page Table & Segment Headers Segment header – associate info about a segment/chunk with a physical pointer –Allocated when segment is added to a chunk –Can store additional info about data in segment Page table – maps pages to segment headers –Pre-allocated based on max # of pages in dbase

21 Transaction Management Recovery System Overview Checkpointing

22 Transaction Management in Dalí Transaction atomicity, isolation & durability in Dalí Regions - logically organized data –A tuple, an object or arbitrary data structure (a tree or a list) Region lock - X or S lock that guards access/updates to a region

23 Multi-Level Recovery Permits use of weaker operation locks in place of X/S region locks Example, index management –An update to index structure (i.e. Insert) –Physical undo description must be valid until transaction commit Unacceptable level of concurrency

24 Multi-level Recovery –Replace low-level physical undo log records with higher-level logical undo log records (description at operation level) –Insert – logical-undo record replaces physical- undo record by specifying that the inserted key must be deleted –Region locks can be released and less restrictive operation locks persist  higher level of concurrency

25 Multi-level Recovery An example of find and insert ? Releasing region locks would allow updates on the same region –Cascading aborts - rolling back the first operation would damage effects of later actions –Only compensating undo operation can be used to undo the operation

26 Multi-level Recovery Example

27 System Overview Stored on disk: –Two checkpoint images Ckpt_A & Ckpt_B –cur_ckpt – anchor to the most recent valid checkpoint image for database –Single system log containing redo information, its tail in memory end_of_stable_log – pointer; all records prior to it were flushed to stable system log

28 System Overview

29 Stored in the system database & with each checkpoint –Active Transaction Table (ATT) Stores separate redo & undo logs for each active transaction –dpt – dirty page table; stores pages updated since the last checkpoint –ckpt_dpt – dpt in a checkpoint

30 Transactions and Operations Transaction – a list of operations –Each op. has a level L i associate with it –Op at level L i is can consist of ops of level L i-1 –L 0 are physical updates to regions –Pre-commit – the commit record enters the system log in memory –Commit - commit record hits the stable storage

31 Logging Model –Updates generate physical undo and redo log records appended to Tx’s undo & redo logs (in ATT) –When Tx pre-commits, redo appended to system log, and logical-undo included in operation commit log in system log –When operation pre-commits, undo log records are deleted for its sub-operations/updates from Tx’s undo log & this operation’s logical undo appended to Tx’s undo log

32 Logging Model –Locks released once Tx/operation pre-commits –System log flushed to disk when Tx commits –Dirty pages are marked in the dpt by he flushing procedure – no page latching

33 Ping-pong Checkpointing –Traditionally, systems implement WAL for recovery – it is impossible to enforce WAL without latches –Latches increase access cost in main memory & interfere with normal processing –Solution, store two copies of dbase image on disk; dirty pages written to alternate checkpoints –Fuzzy checkpointing – no latches used, no interference with normal operations

34 Ping-pong Checkpointing Checkpoints are allowed to be temporarily inconsistent – updates written out without undo records Redo and undo info from ATT is written out to a checkpoint and brings it to a consistent state If failure occurs, the other checkpoint is still consistent and can be used for recovery

35 Ping-pong Checkpointing Log flush necessary at end of checkpointing before toggling cur_ckpt – commit might take place before writing out ATT, leaving no undo information if system crashes

36 Abort Processing Upon abort, undo log records undone by sequentially traversing undo log from end New physical-redo log record created for every physical-undo encountered Similarly, for logical-undo “compensation” operation is executed (“proxy) All undo log records deleted when proxy commits

37 Abort Processing Commit record for proxy is similar to compenstation log records (CLRs) in ARIES During recovery, logical-undo log record deleted from Tx’s undo log if a CLR encountered, preventing Tx from being undone gagin

38 Recovery end_of_stable_log is where recovery begins Initializes ATT and undo logs with copies from last checkpoint Loads database image and sets dpt to zero Applies all redo log following begin- recovery-point Then all active transactions are rolled back –First all completed L 0 operations must be rolled back then L 1, then L 2 and so on.

39 Post-commit Operations Operations guaranteed to be carried out after commit of a transaction/operation even if the system crashes Some operations cannot be rolled back once performed (deletion then allocation of same space to different operation) Need to ensure high concurrency on storage allocator – cannot hold locks Solution – perform these operations after transaction commits (keep post-commit log)

40 Fault Tolerance Process Death and Its Detection

41 Fault Tolerance Techniques that help cope with process failure scenarios

42 Process Death Caused by an attempt to access invalid memory, or by an operator kill Must return shared data partially updated to consistent state Abort any uncommitted transactions owned by that process Cleanup server is primarily responsible for cleaning up dead processes

43 Process Death Active Process Table (APT) – keeps track of all processes in the system; scanned periodically to check if any are dead Low-level clean up –Process registers with APT any latch acquired –If latch held by dead process clean up function for that latch is called –If not possible to clean up latch then simulate system crash

44 Process Death Cleaning up Transactions –Clean-up agent – scan Tx table and abort any Tx running on behalf of the dead process or execute post-commit actions for committed Tx –Multiple clean up agents spawn if multiple processes have died

45 Protection from Application Errors Memory protection –munprotect called right before an update to a page and mprotect after Tx commits to protect pages Codewords –associate logical parity word with each page of data –Erroneous writes will update only physical data not codeword – crash simulated if error found

46 Concurrency Control Implementation of Latches

47 Concurrency Control Concurrency control facilities: –Latches (low-level locks for mutual exclusion) –Queuing locks Latch Implementation –Semaphores too expensive – system call overhead –Implementation must complement cleanup server

48 Latch Implementation

49 Processes that wish to acquire a latch keep a pointer to that latch in their wants field cleanup-in-progress flag forbids processes to attempt to get a latch is set to True Cleanup server waits for process to set their wants fields to null or another lock or to die If a dead process is a registered owner of the latch, cleanup function is called

50 Locking System Lock header structure –Stores a pointer to a list of locks that have been requested (but not released) by transactions –Request times out if not granted in a certain amount of time Add new lock modes with the use of conflicts and covers –covers – holder of lock A checks for conflicts when requesting new lock of type B, unless A covers B

51 Collections and Indexing Heap Files Extendible Hashing

52 Collections and Indexing Dalí provides higher level interfaces for grouping related data items & performing scans & associative access on items in group Heap file –abstraction for handling a large number of fixed- length data items –Scans are supported through bitmaps in segment header –Entries deleted from heap are 0 in the bitmap –Bitmap mirrors allocator’s free list

53 Collections and Indexing Extendible hashing –Similar to what was covered in CS 432 –Utilization factor – determines when to double the directory; more tolerant than bucket overflow trigger; avoids space problems/util.

54 Extendible Hashing

55 T-tree indexes Briefly: internal nodes, semi-leaf & leaf nodes To search for value, at each node check if key is bounded by left and right-most key values. If so, check if key value returned if contained in the node; otherwise traverse tree further down

56 Higher Level Interfaces Two database management systems built on Dalí –Dalí Relational Manager –Main Memory – ODE Object Oriented Database


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