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Hardware interfacing  Supplying Clock & Power  Buses and bridges  DC/AC analysis  Timing analysis  Design considerations  Design for worst case.

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Presentation on theme: "Hardware interfacing  Supplying Clock & Power  Buses and bridges  DC/AC analysis  Timing analysis  Design considerations  Design for worst case."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hardware interfacing  Supplying Clock & Power  Buses and bridges  DC/AC analysis  Timing analysis  Design considerations  Design for worst case

2 Supplying power  Power circuitry –What voltages do you need? –How much power? –DC2DC –Battery power –Filter to bypass Power Supply Noise ( microfarad) –Avoid ground loops.  Power saving techniques –Power consumption proportional to the clock frequency –Choice of components –Power saving modes

3 Supplying clock  Frequency –Minimum (some devices may require minimal clock in order to maintain internal state) –Maximum  Duty cycle –Usually symmetrical but may be asymmetrical as well

4 Buses and bridges  Focus on the microprocessor bus and its operation –General bus operations –Device addressing and decoding –Timing diagrams and timing requirements –External devices: PRU, memory, other support chips  Bridge is device transparently connecting two or more buses. –Buses can be different or the same Example PCI/PCI or PCI/EISA

5 Buses and bridges General bus operation –Processor places desired peripheral's address onto address bus –Processor (or peripheral) places data onto data bus for a write (read) operation –Peripheral (processor) gates the data into its internal registers to complete the operation –Operation is directed by the various control lines that are included in the bus Clock signals Address strobe / latch Device enable signals Data direction signals -- read vs. write operations Type of reference -- standard or memory mapped I/O -- IO/M* Data ready

6 Timing analysis  Just as in comedy, timing is essential to the success of microcomputer design  When timing or loading problems show up in design they usually appear as intermittent failures or sensitivity to power supply fluctuation, temperature and so on.

7 Timing diagram Notation Convention

8 Rise and Fall Times

9 Timing analysis  Propagation delays –Asymmetrical for high to low and low to high transitions –Setup and hold time Setup time is amount of time a sampled input signal must be valid and stable prior to a clock signal transition Hold time is amount of time that sampled signal must be held valid after the clock transition occures –If setup or hold time requirement not met it causes metastability – state unpredictable and may be unstable

10 Timing diagrams  System clock –Bus transitions occur in relation to system clock –Called the E clock in 68HC11 1/4 crystal frequency Low - internal process High - reading or writing data  Some definitions: –Setup time : time for a device to change its output in response to an input change –Hold time: length of time a device will maintain its last output in response to a request to change it

11 Example

12 Fan-Out and Loading analysis DC and AC  The main question can this output drive all the inputs I want connect to it?

13 DC Specifications

14 DC  The maximum current that can be produced by output –Minimum output low (sink) current for valid 0 output voltage - I OLmin –Minimum output high (source) current for a valid one output voltage - I OHmin  Maximum current required to drive an input –Maximum input low current for valid zero input voltage – I ILmax –Maximum input high current for a valid one input voltage - I IHmax

15 AC  C L – The load capacitance that an output is specified to drive  C in – Maximum input capacitance of a driven input load  C stray – Wiring and stray capacitance can be approximated to be in the range of 1 to 2 picofarads per inch of wiring on a typical PC board.  Driving device spec C L > actual C load =C in1 + C in2 + …+C wiring

16 68HC11 Memory cycle

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18 Note that in the HC11  Address information is provided to the external device (using the multiplexed address/data bus) in the low half cycle of the E-clock  Data to be read/written is placed on the data bus only in the high half cycle of the E-clock  All read and write operations MUST take place in 1 E-cycle –External devices and circuitry must be designed to meet this requirement –Cannot use “wait states” as you can in other microprocessor systems 8085: Slower devices can use READY input to request wait states Processor maintains address, data, and control signals

19 Expanded multiplexed mode  68HC11 supplies external bus signals –Port B = A15-A8 –Port C = A7-A0 multiplexed with D7-D0  Address usually must be valid during entire operation –Need to latch A7-A0 (using 74HC373, for example)  Use external logic to derive control signals –Chip enable/select –Read/Write –Output enable

20 Error detection and correction  Errors –Soft error –Hard error  Confidence Checks –Parity –Hamming code –Checksum –CRC

21 Test study  consider the following very general circuit layout that interfaces the 68HC11 to a 6264 Fast Static Ram (8k x 8)

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23 Example  is used as the address latch to “save” the lower 8 bits of the address that are on Port C only during the first half of the E-clock cycle  Discrete logic is used to derive the write and read enable signals for the memory chip (W* and G*) –Both can only be asserted in the second half of the E-clock cycle  is used for address decoding to generate a memory chip enable (chip select) signal (E1*) –Since the E-clock enables the 138, the decoder is only active in 2nd half cycle –Memory chip can not be enabled in the 1st half cycle

24 Timing relationship  Timing relationships are derived by comparing the timing diagrams of the memory chip and the HC11 and considering the external circuitry where necessary.  Read operation HC11 E-clock goes low Address information placed on address bus, AS pulsed to trigger address latch E-clock goes high HC11 expects data to be placed on data bus E-clock goes low again and process repeats

25 Timing relationship  Read operation HC11 –HC11 expects data to be placed on the data bus before E-clock goes low –HC11 expects data to remain on data bus until E-clock goes low –External device must release data bus before HC11 places next address on address bus –Exact timing requirements are given in table

26 Timing relationship  6264 timing: –Outputs data after receiving the address and the E* and G* signals –Timing constraints How long does 6264 take to output data after receiving address and enable signals? How long does it keep data on the bus? Timings given in data sheet –We also have to take into account the propagation delays due to the external circuitry Decoder (74138): PD DEC = 25 ns Inverter (7404): PD INV = 15 ns Latch (74573): PD LATCH = 23 ns Nand (7400): PD NAND = 15 ns Values taken from data sheets

27 –Suggestion: For each timing parameter given in the RAM data sheet, draw a new timing diagram that shows the relation between the RAM’s signals and the HC11’s signals –Example: t ELQV This is the time from when the Enable signal (E1*) goes low until the data is placed on the data bus (assumes the address is already available and that the output enable G* is already low) For this circuit, the E1* is connected to the output of the 138 decoder, so it changes state after the inputs to the decoder change Inputs to the decoder are A15-A13 and the E-clock So, draw a timing diagram that shows E-clock, A15-A13, E1*, and the data bus Does the RAM put the data on the bus before the HC11 requires it?

28 Read operation

29 Timing relationships for read operation 6264HC11 t ELQV (CE to data valid) t DHR - PD inv, t DHR -PD dec, < t MAD -PD dec

30 Write operation - timing  HC11: –Sequence of events E-clock goes low Address placed on address bus, AS pulsed to latch it E-clock goes high HC11 places data on data bus E-clock goes low and cycle repeats  6264: –Needs address, data, E*, and W* signals Write occurs only when both E* and W* are low Data must be held on bus until either E* or W* rises –We need to make sure that HC11 places data on data bus in time for RAM to get it HC11 holds data long enough for write to complete

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32 Timing relationship for write operation 6264HC11 t AVAV < t AVM + t r + PW EH + t f + t AH - PD latch t AVEH < t AVM + t r + PW EH -PD latch + PD dec t AVWH < t AVM + t r + PW EH -PD latch + PD nand t AVEL < t AVM + t r - PD latch + PD dec t ELEH < PW EH t ELWH < PW EH - PD dec + PD nand

33 Timing operation for write operation (cont’d) t DVEH < PW EH - t DDW + PD dec t DVWH < PW EH - t DDW + PD nand t EHAX < t AH - PD dec t WHAX < t AH - PD nand t EHDX < t DHW - PD dec t WHDX < t DHW - PD nand

34 Example modification Address Data E* W* G* 8K x 8 RAM 74HC138 Y2 Y3 A0 A1 A2 CS1 CS2* CS3* 8 13 A12-A0 R/W* A13 A14 E A15

35 Interrupts  Edge or Level?  Interrupt aggregation and hierarchy –Open collector –Using external logic Latch and Status Make sure you latch it only once at source Make sure you can mask/unmask on each level

36 Assignment  Calculate what is the base address of 6164 in the circuit from Slide 22 and Example modification.Slide 22Example modification


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