Presentation on theme: "Using the 8254 Timer-Counter Understanding the role of the system’s 8254 programmable Interval-Timer/Counter."— Presentation transcript:
Using the 8254 Timer-Counter Understanding the role of the system’s 8254 programmable Interval-Timer/Counter
Motivation We want to explore the Pentium’s support for multiprocessing (as distinguished from multitasking, which we already examined) The algorithms for multiprocessor startup will require us to use some ‘timed delays’ (for example, a delay of 10 milliseconds) Various other systems programming tasks require the use of carefully timed delays
The 8254 PIT The 8254 Programmable Interval-timer is used by the PC system for (1) generating timer-tick interrupts (rate is 18.2 per sec), (2) performing dynamic memory-refresh (reads ram once every 15 microseconds), and (3) generates ‘beeps’ of PC speaker When the speaker-function isn’t needed, the 8254 is available for other purposes
Counter decrements when pulsed OUT CLK GATE LSB STATUS MSB LSBMSB LATCH REGISTER COUNT REGISTER TIMER/COUNTER CHANNEL
Three timer/counter ‘channels’ Channel 0 Channel 1 Channel 2 8254 PIT 8284 PCLK +5 V CLK0 CLK1 CLK2 GATE0 GATE1 GATE2 OUT0 OUT1 OUT2 Interrupt IRQ0 DRAM refresh speaker Port 0x61, bit #0 Port 0x61, bit #1 AND Port 0x61, bit #5 Port 0x61, bit #4 1193182 Hz
Programming a PIT channel Step 1: send command to PIT (port 0x43) Step 2: read or write the channel’s Latch – via port 0x40 for channel 0 – via port 0x41 for channel 1 – via port 0x42 for channel 2
Status/control (via port 0x61) R/O R/W 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 GATE2 1 = on 0 = off speaker 1 = on 0 = off OUT1 1 = on 0 = off OUT2 1 = on 0 = off memory parity check i/o channel check i/o channel check enable memory parity check enable
Algorithm for 10-ms delay Step 1: turn off Channel 2 counting (and disable PC speaker) by clearing bits #0 and #1 at i/o port 0x61 (called ‘PORT_B’) Step 2: issue command to 8254 to accept a new value in Channel 2 Latch Register, by outputing 10110000b to io-port 0x43: i.e., chn2, r/w LSB/MSB, one-shot, binary
Algorithm (continued) Step 3: compute the frequency-divisor for a ten millisecond delay (one hundredth of one second) by dividing CLK2 frequency (1,193,182 Hz) by one-hundred Step 4: write quotient’s LSB, followed by its MSB, to channel 2 Latch (io-port 0x42)
Algorithm (continued again) Begin the Channel 2 countdown (set bit #0 at io-port 0x61) and immediately read and save the Pentium’s TimeStamp Counter Spin in a tight loop until the OUT2 signal goes active (Channel 2 count exhausted) by testing bit #5 at io-port 0x61 Immediately re-read TimeStamp Counter Perform subtraction (to get CPU cycles)
Algorithm (concluded) Divide cycle-count by ten-thousand, to get processor’s clock-speed in Mega-Hertz (i.e., in millions of cycles-per-second) Display this quotient in decimal format!
In-class exercise The Real-Time Clock chip automatically updates its clock/calendar registers once each second Register values cannot be reliably read while the RTC’s update is in progress Most significant bit in RTC register 0x0A provides indication of ‘update-in-progress’ How long does the RTC ‘update’ last?
Algorithm for update-duration Wait until a new RTC update begins Immediately read the TimeStamp Counter Wait until this update-operation finishes Immediately read the TimeStamp Counter Wait until the next update begins Immediately read the TimeStamp Counter The RATIO of these two time-intervals gives ‘update-duration’ as a fraction of one second