Presentation on theme: "The Amendments Because who can get everything right the first time?"— Presentation transcript:
The Amendments Because who can get everything right the first time?
Bill of Rights Amendments 1-10 Remember the three categories ▫“Revolution Reaction” 1-4 ▫The Law and the Courts 5-8 ▫Non-Rights Amendments 9-10
Amendment 11 Proposed: March 4, 1794 Ratified: February 7, 1795 Makes States immune from suits from out-of- state citizens and foreigners not living within the state Sovereign Immunity: States cannot be sued in court unless they agree to it ▫Not really an issue anymore
Amendment 12 Proposed: December 9, 1803 Ratified: June 15, 1804 Changed Presidential Elections and the Vice President: 1.Vote for President and Vice President separately 2.Vice President must be constitutionally eligible to be President 3.Vice President granted powers of President should something happen to the President
Vice President requirements 35 Years Old Natural Born Citizen 14 Years in the United States Same as Pres!
The Civil War Biggest single event that changes the Constitution
The Reconstruction Amendments 13, 14, 15
13 th Amendment Proposed: January 31, 1865 Ratified: December 6, 1865 Abolishes Slavery and involuntary servitude. Except as punishment for a crime Allows Congress to pass laws against Sex trafficking in the modern era
14 th Amendment (This is a big one) Proposed: June 13, 1866 Ratified: July 9, 1868 Deals with: 1.Citizenship 2.Privileges or Immunities 3.Due Process (In the States) 4.Equal Protection 5.Post-Civil War issues
Section One- The most used section of any Amendment in the Supreme Court Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Citizenship Under the 14th Designed to protect the newly freed slaves “Citizenship: to all person’s born in the United States not under a foreign power” Issues? ▫Native Americans ▫Children of Illegal Immigrants
Privileges or Immunities Clause Protects Privileges and Immunities of National citizenship from interference by the states Ex: ▫Access to seaports and navigable waterways ▫Right to run for federal office ▫Protection of the federal government while on the high seas or in the jurisdiction of a foreign country ▫Right to travel to the seat of government ▫Right to peaceably assemble and petition the government ▫Privilege of the writ of habeas corpus ▫Right to participate in the government's administration
Right to Privacy in the 14 th Due Process Clause Right to Privacy is part of Due Process Right to Privacy is your personal “Liberty” Used in cases dealing with: ▫Abortion ▫Gay Rights ▫Birth Control
Equal Protection in the 14 th States must provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction Created to protect freed slaves that lived in states with “Black Codes” Used in: ▫Brown v. Board of Education ▫Regents of the University of California v. Bakke ▫Reed v. Reed ▫Shaw v. Reno “One Man, One Vote” ▫Bush v. Gore
15 th Amendment Proposed: February 26, 1869 Ratified: February 3, 1870 Suffrage cannot be denied based on: ▫Race ▫Color ▫Previous condition of servitude
16 th Amendment Proposed: July 12, 1909 Ratified: February 3, 1913 Allows the Federal Government to collect income tax
17 th Amendment Proposed: May 13, 1912 Ratified: April 8, 1913 Established the direct election of Senators by popular vote (Our vote) Before: ▫State legislatures picked Senators Why was this changed made?
18 th Amendment Proposed: Dec 18, 1917 Ratified: Jan 16, 1919 Prohibition of Alcohol! ▫Production, Transport, and Sale illegal ▫Consumption & Private Possession still OK
19 th Amendment Proposed: June 4, 1919 Ratified: August 18, 1920 Granted Women suffrage
20 th Amendment Proposed: March 2, 1932 Ratified: January 23, 1933 Moved start of Presidents term from ▫March 4 th to January 20 th Moved start of Senators term from ▫March 4 th to January 3 rd Why? Thoughts? Called the “Lame Duck Amendment”
Can you delete something from the Constitution? No. You can “repeal” it Basically say it is no longer valid
21 st Amendment Proposed: Feb 20, 1933 Ratified: Dec 5, 1933 Repealed the 18 th amendment 18 th is the only amendment to be repealed
22 nd Amendment Proposed: March 24, 1947 Ratified: Feb, Limits number of times a person can be elected President to two Person who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected cannot be elected more than once Max number of years someone can be president: 10
23 rd Amendment Proposed: June 16, 1960 Ratified: March 29, 1961 D.C. represented in electoral college
24 th Amendment Proposed: Sep 14, 1962 Ratified: Jan 23, 1964 Prohibits Poll Taxes from blocking voting
25 th Amendment Proposed: July 6, 1965 Ratified: Feb 10, 1967 Sets process of Presidential Succession Deals with Presidential disabilities Allows a President to appoint a New VP if there is no VP
Text of a Letter from the President to the President Pro Tempore of the Senate June 29, 2002 Dear Mr. President: As my staff has previously communicated to you, I will undergo this morning a routine medical procedure requiring sedation. In view of present circumstances, I have determined to transfer temporarily my Constitutional powers and duties to the Vice President during the brief period of the procedure and recovery. Accordingly, in accordance with the provisions of Section 3 of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, this letter shall constitute my written declaration that I am unable to discharge the Constitutional powers and duties of the office of President of the United States. Pursuant to Section 3, the Vice President shall discharge those powers and duties as Acting President until I transmit to you a written declaration that I am able to resume the discharge of those powers and duties. Sincerely,
Text of a Letter from the President to the President Pro Tempore of the Senate June 29, 2002 Dear Mr. President: In accordance with the provisions of Section 3 of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, this letter shall constitute my written declaration that I am presently able to resume the discharge of the Constitutional powers and duties of the office of President of the United States. With the transmittal of this letter, I am resuming those powers and duties effective immediately. Sincerely,
Dear Kate, Elizabeth, Grace, Philip, Richard and Sam, As I write this, our nation is engaged in a war with terrorists of global reach. My principal focus as Vice President has been to help protect the American people and our way of life. The vigilance, diligence and unwavering commitment of those who protect our Nation has kept us safe from terrorist attacks of the kind we faced on September 11, We owe a special debt of gratitude to the members of our armed forces, intelligence agencies, law enforcement agencies and others who serve and sacrifice to keep us safe and free. As you grow, you will come to understand the sacrifices that each generation makes to preserve freedom and democracy for future generations, and you will assume the important responsibilities of citizens in our society. I ask of you as my grandchildren what I asked of my daughters, that you always strive in your lives to do what is right. May God bless and protect you. Acting President of the United States (Grandpa Cheney)
26 th Amendment Proposed: March 23, 1971 Ratified: July 1, 1971 Right to Vote for those age 18 and older Before it was State by state most you had to be 21
27 th Amendment Proposed: Sep, Ratified: May 7, 1992 Prevents laws affecting Congressional salary from taking effect until after the next election of representatives. Basically cannot give themselves raises
BOOM! Amendments over. Questions?
Exit Ticket Which Amendment was repealed and which amendment repealed it? Which Amendment gave D.C. electoral college votes? Which two Amendments deal with giving people the right to vote? Which Three Amendments make up the Reconstruction Amendments? Most used Amendment in the Supreme Court?