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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 10.1 Sequential Logic Introduction Bistables Memory Registers Shift Registers Counters Monostables or one-shots Astables Timers Chapter 10

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 10.2 Introduction Sequential logic elements combine the characteristics of combinational logic with memory When constructing sequential logic our building blocks are often some form of multivibrator –a term used to describe a range of circuits these have two outputs that are the inverse of each other the output are labelled Q and three basic forms: –bistables –monstables –astables 10.1

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 10.3 Bistables The S-R latch (SET-RESET Latch) 10.2 when R = S = 0 –circuit stays in current state when S = 1, R = 0 –Q is SET to 1 ( = 0) when S = 0, R = 1 –Q is RESET to 0 ( = 1) when S = 1, R = 1 –both outputs at 0 – not allowed

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 10.4 The S-R latch Circuit symbols

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 10.5 The S-R latch A waveform diagram

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 10.6 A design example - see Example 10.1 in course text A Burglar Alarm –close all doors and window (closing switches) –open reset switch to initialise system –opening any of the door/window switches will activate alarm –alarm will continue if switch is then closed –alarm is silenced by opening reset switch

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 10.7 The D latch (Data Latch)

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 10.8 Edge-triggered devices –it is often necessary to synchronise many devices –this can be done using a clock input such devices respond on a particular transition of the clock these are called edge-triggered devices or flip-flops can have positive-edge or negative-edge triggered devices

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 10.9 The D flip-flop –symbol as in previous slide –behaviour of positive-edge triggered device as below –Q becomes equal to D at the time of the trigger event

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT The J-K flip-flop –similar to S-R flip-flop but toggles when J = K = 1

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Asynchronous inputs –some flip-flops have asynchronous inputs

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Propagation delays and races –real logic gates take a finite time to react –some circuits (as below) can suffer from race hazards where the operation of the circuit is uncertain in this circuit the output depends on which devices is fastest

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Pulse-triggered or master/slave bistables –these overcome race hazards by responding to the state of the inputs shortly before the clock trigger

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Memory Registers Combining a number of bistables we can construct a memory register –several forms of bistable can be used, for example: 10.3

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Often we are not concerned with the internal construction of the register –they are a standard integrated component

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Shift Registers A slightly different configuration of bistables can produce a shift register 10.4

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Behaviour of a shift register

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT An application of a shift register –in serial/parallel and parallel/serial conversion used in serial communication

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Counters Ripple counters –can be constructed using several forms of bistable –consider the following arrangement –with J = K = 1 each bistable toggles on the falling edge of its clock input 10.5

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Each stage toggles at half the frequency of the previous stage –acts as a frequency divider –divides frequency by 2 n (n is the number of stages)

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Application of a frequency divider – see Example 10.3 Clock generator for a digital watch –15-stage counter divides signal from a crystal oscillator by 32,768 to produce a 1 Hz signal to drive stepper motor or digital display

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Consider the pattern on the outputs of the counter shown earlier – displayed on the right the outputs count in binary from 0 to 2 n -1 and then repeat –the circuit acts as a modulo-2 n counter –since the counting process propagates from one bistable to the next this is called a ripple counter –circuit shown is a 4-bit or modulo-16 (or mod-16) ripple counter

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Modulo-N counters –by using an appropriate number of stages the earlier counter can count modulo any power of 2 –to count to any other base we add reset circuitry –e.g. the modulo-10 or decade counter shown here

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Down and up/down Counters –a slight modification to the earlier circuit will produce a counter that counts from 2 n -1 to 0 and then restarts –this is a down counter –a further modification can produce an up/down counter which counts up or down depending on the state of a control line (usually labelled ) when this is 1 the counter counts up when this is 0 the counter counts down

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Propagation delay in counters –while ripple counters are very simple they suffer from problems at high speed –since the output of one flip-flop is triggered by the change of the previous device, delays produced by each flip-flop are summed along the chain –the time for a single device to respond is termed its propagation delay time t PD –an n-bit counter will take n t PD to respond –if read before this time the result will be garbled

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Synchronous counters –these overcome the propagation delay in ripple counters by connecting all the flip-flops to the same clock signal –thus each stage changes state at the same time –additional circuitry is used to determine which stages change state on each clock pulse –faster than ripple counters but more complex –available in many forms including up, down, up/down and modulo-N counters

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Monostables or one-shots Monostables are another form of multivibrator –while bistables have two stable output states –monostables have one stable & one metastable states when in its stable state Q = 0 when an appropriate signal is applied to the trigger input (T ) the circuit enters its metastable state with Q = 1 after a set period of time (determined by circuit components) it reverts to its stable state it is therefore a pulse generator 10.6 Circuit symbol

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Monostables can be retriggerable or non-retriggerable

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Astables The last member of the multivibrator family is the astable –this has two metastable states –has the function of a digital oscillator –circuit spends a fixed period in each state (determined by circuit components) –if the period in each state is set to be equal, this will produce a square waveform 10.7

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Timers The integrated circuit timer can produce a range of functions –including those of a monostable or astable –various devices –one of the most popular is the 555 timer –can be configured using just a couple of external passive components –internal construction largely unimportant – all required information on using the device is in its data sheet 10.8

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Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT Key Points Sequential logic circuits have the characteristic of memory Among the most important groups of sequential components are the various forms of multivibrator –bistables –monostables –astables The most widely used form is the bistable which includes –latches, edge-triggered flip-flops and master/slave devices Registers form the basis of various memories Counters are widely used in a range of applications Monostables and astables perform a range of functions

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