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KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Environmental Hazards & Human Health Disarikan oleh: soemarno, psl ppsub 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Environmental Hazards & Human Health Disarikan oleh: soemarno, psl ppsub 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Environmental Hazards & Human Health Disarikan oleh: soemarno, psl ppsub 2013

2 Apakah bahaya lingkungan ? 'Environmental hazard' is a generic term for any situation or state of events which poses a threat to the surrounding environment. This term incorporates topics like pollution and natural hazards such as storms and earthquakes. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

3 Sumber: Diunduh 16/12/2012

4 BAHAYA DAN RISIKO BAHAYA = Hazard: Is “a factor or exposure that may adversely affect health” it is a qualitative term expressing the potential of an environmental agent to harm the health of certain individuals if the exposure level is high enough and/or if other conditions apply. Risiko Is “the probability that an event will occur, the probability of unfavorable outcome e.g that an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or age. It is the quantitative probability that a health effect will occur after an individual has been exposed to a specified amount of a hazard. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

5 KONTAMINASI Contamination -- Introduction into water, air, and soil of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use. Also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings, and various household and agricultural use products. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

6 PENCEMARAN Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light energy. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

7 POLUTAN = PENCEMAR A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: –Sifat kimianya, –Konsentrasinya –Persistensinya. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

8 "Pollution" is generally used when you're talking about something big, like a whole environment, or an entire river, or something else really large. "Contamination" can refer to very small quantities of something - contaminated food, medicine, drinking water supply; it can also mean a very small amount of foreign or harmful material, such as bacterial contamination, or a toxin, especially when it's not readily visible or noticeable. For instance, a surgical suite could be contaminated simply because someone walks into it when they're not sterile, and it would be completely invisible. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 POLUTAN & KONTAMINASI

9 ANY external factor that negatively affects your health can be considered an environmental health “hazard." Common environmental health hazards include indoor and outdoor air pollution, and contaminated food and water. Less commonly discussed environmental health hazards include lack of sidewalks, crime, insufficient physical activity, poor nutrition, social isolation, noise, stress, and the lack of aesthetically pleasing living environments. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN BAGI KESEHATAN ?

10 JENIS BAHAYA KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Bahaya Tradisional Disease Vectors Infectious agents Housing and Shelter Drinking Water & Sanitation Indoor air Pollution Dietary Deficiencies Reproduction Injury hazards Bahaya Modern Tobacco smoking Alcohol and drugs Transport hazards Environmental pollution Outdoor air pollution Chemical hazards Occupational Hazards Unbalanced Diet Stress Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

11 Jalur masuknya bahaya EH Inhalation –airborne contaminants Absorption –penetration through the skin Ingestion –eating –drinking Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

12 Acute –Short term period between exposure and onset of symptoms Chronic –Long time period between exposure to an agent and the onset of symptoms Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 PAPARAN BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN

13 There are five types of environmental hazards: Chemical ; Physical ; Mechanical ; Biological ; Psychosocial Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 JENIS-JENIS BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN The system of environmental health. The human living environment consists of home, work and recreational environments. The interaction between these environments and human activities results in various types of hazards that may adversely affect human health. (Source: adapted from Bassett, 2004) Sumber: 15/12/2012

14 Pesticides; Acids and Bases; Metal fumes ; Solvents; Gases BAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA Sumber:. 15/12/2012

15 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 BAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA

16 Insects; Rodents; Animals Microorganisms: –Bacteria –Viruses –Parasites –Yeasts –Molds Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 BAHAYA BIOLOGIS Biological risk assessment and risk management Sumber: …. Diunduh dari: 17/12/2012

17 Tipe Bahaya Fisika: Noise and Vibration Ionizing Radiation Non-ionizing Radiation Light, Lasers Pressure Extremes of Temperature Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: /12/ BAHAYA FISIKA Characteristics of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Sumber: gtcceis.anl.gov …. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

18 Uncertainty Anxiety Lack of feeling of control over one own life Homesickness Isolation Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 BAHAYA PSIKOSOSIAL Common Signs of Anxiety Anxiety itself could also be a result of a deeper physiological or psychological cause. That is why the possible manifestations that are associated with anxiety are numerous and can be classified into the specific areas of the body affected. Anxiety is often difficult to identify in a person. Extreme cases present with severe symptoms. This makes stress or anxiety exercises and treatments an essential for anyone going through anxiety attacks. Read More Here:

19 –Stress is a human response to stressors –Stress is a specific event or situation that causes a mental or psychological reaction. –Stress is a process resulting from the interaction between humans and the environment. –Stress process consists of 2 stages: Deciding whether or not an event (stressor) poses a hazard Appraising the possibilities of dealing with the situation. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 APAKAH STRESS ITU?

20 Penyakit Kardiovaskular –Hypertension –Ischemic heart diseases –Increase heart rate Peptic ulcer Asma Bronchial Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 EFEK STRESS THD KESEHATAN

21 BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN YANG SERIUS Polutan Udara –Indoor air pollutants –Outdoor air pollutants Kelangkaan air & Polutan air Bahaya makanan Bahaya rumah hunian Bahaya permukiman Bahaya serangga & Rodents Pestisida Bahaya lingkungan global Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

22 EFEK KESEHATAN AKIBAT PENCEMARAN UDARA Sumber: Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 Climate change and health Climate change has a range of complex interlinkages with health. These include direct impacts, such as temperature- related illness and death; the health impacts of extreme weather events; the effect of air pollution in the form of spores and moulds.

23 BAHAYA KESEHATAN YANG PENTING? Do We Face? The effects of environmental exposures on health depend on the social settings in which the exposures occur and on individual behaviours. Behavioural risk factors are sometimes closely related to physical risk factors (e.g. hygiene is related to sanitation) and modify the health impacts of the physical risk factors. Indeed, the specific contributions of related behavioural and physical risk factors sometimes cannot easily be separated, as for example in the risk factor "water, sanitation and hygiene". Sumber: https://apps.who.int/peh/burden/ / chap2.htm.diunduh 15/12/2012.diunduh

24 APAKAH PENCEMARAN UDARA? Addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health and quality of life Can occur indoor or outdoor, in cities and across continents and even globally Air pollutants consist of: gaseous pollutants, odors, suspended particle matter (dust, fumes, mist and smoke) Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

25 POLUSI UDARA DI DALAM RUANGAN Indoor air can be defined as any non-industrial indoor space where a person spends a period of an hour or more in any day. This can include the air space in the office, classroom, motor vehicle, shopping centre, hospital and home. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

26 PENCEMAR UDARA DALAM RUANGAN second-hand tobacco smoke; airborne mold and mildew; lead-impregnated dust from old paint cockroach shedding; dust mite particles; combustion gases released by stoves, heaters, candles and fireplaces; chemicals released by –dry cleaned clothes; –cleaning products; –room deodorizers; –office supplies; –paints and sealers; –new furniture and pressed wood; –personal care products; and –pesticides. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

27 SUMBER PENCEMAR INDOOR Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

28 PENCEMAR UDARA OUTDOOR Ozone (O3) Particulate Matter (PM) Carbon Monoxide (CO( Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Lead (Pb) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs( Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

29 SUMBER PENCEMAR UDARA Transportation (Mobile sources ) –Motor vehicles, rail, shipping, aviation. Industry sources –Power stations, petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing. Power Plants Central heating Incineration of domestic wastes Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

30 EFEK KESEHATAN – PENCEMAR UDARA Irritation of nose, eye, and throat Respiratory diseases (Bronchitis, Asthma, cough, nausea …etc.) Cardiovascular diseases Toxicity (CO) Decrease of pulmonary function and restricted activities) Cancers (Benzene) Neurological impairments, such as seizures, mental retardation, and behavioral disorders (Pb). kidney/liver damage, CNS disorders (Arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and chromium) Increased hospital admissions and ER visits. Premature death Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

31 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 Efek Polusi thd Kesehatan Polusi Udara Polusi Air Kontamina si Tanah Pestisi da Ozo n Bakteri Parasit Bahan Kimia Pb

32 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 Piramida efek kesehatan EFEK KESEHATAN POLUSI UDARA

33 PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Reduce emissions (conservation and improved efficiency); e.g., refineries Collect, capture, and retain pollutants before entering the atmosphere; e.g., gas stations Regulating automobile exhaust using catalytic converter, control of sulfur dioxide through scrubbing Varied pollutant-control strategies and new and improved technologies Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

34 Risiko biasanya dinyatakan dalam “Peluang” Risiko Probability and possibility Pendugaan Risiko Pengelolaan Risiko Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

35 Regulatory control –Standards (process and emission) Engineering control –Ventilation (general and local) –Process change Work practice control Administrative control Personnel protective equipment Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA

36 PENTINGNYA KESEHATAN AIR There are 4 billion cases of diarrhea worldwide each year and 2.2 million avoidable deaths-that's a death every 14 seconds. Most diarrheal deaths occur in the Majority World and just being able to wash one's hands with soap and water can reduce diarrhea by 35%. Insect-related diseases Malaria, is the biggest killer, causing 1-2 million deaths a year. At any given time 100 million people suffer from the disease. Parasites Intestinal worms infect about 10% of the majority world population. About 200 million people are affected by schistosomiasis (bilharzia), with 200,000 dying each year. After a peak in the late 1980s, guinea-worm infections have been declining as water sources are better monitored. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

37 Every day, diarrheal diseases cause some 6,000 deaths, mostly among children under five: in 2001, 1.96 million people died from infectious diarrheas; 1.3 million were children under five. Diarrheal diseases have killed more children in the past ten years than all the people lost to armed conflict since World War II. Between 1,085,000 and 2,187,000 deaths due to diarrheal diseases can be attributed to the 'water, sanitation and hygiene' risk factor, 90% of them among children under five. With simple hygiene measures such as washing hands after using the toilet or before preparing food, most of these deaths are preventable. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 PENTINGNYA KESEHATAN AIR

38 Biological Chemical physical Sumber:. Diunduh dari: azards /12/2012 BAHAYA AIR & EFEK KESEHATAN

39 Volatile organic compounds Hydrophobic organic compounds Endocrine disruptors Petroleum Additives Pesticides Heavy metals Other inorganic elements Acids/bases Oxidants/reductant s Chlorination by- products Combustion by- products 39 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 BAHAN BERBAHAYA DALAM AIR

40 Typhoid fever ; Giardia ; Dysentery ; Cholera ; Diarrhea (caused by a variety of pathogens) ; Hepatitis ; Polio ; Worms Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 PENYAKIT DARI AIR Classification of water-related diseases Sumber;

41 JASAD PATHOGENIK 41 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

42 42 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 JASAD PATHOGENIK

43 PENYAKIT YANG BERHUBUNGAN DNEGAN AIR 43 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

44 TINGKAT PENYAKIT & RISIKONYA 44 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

45 PENDUGAAN RISIKO & PENGELOLAAN RISIKO Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 PENDUGAAN RISIKO PENGELOLAAN RISIKO

46 Fig. 17-3, p. 440 Risk Assessment Risk Management Hazard identification What is the hazard? Risk reduction How much should it be reduced? Probability of risk How likely is the event? Risk reduction strategy How will the risk be reduced? Consequences of risk What is the likely damage? Financial commitment How much money should be spent? Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 TINGKAT PENYAKIT & RISIKONYA Identifikasi bahaya Apa bahaya itu? Analisis komparatif risiko Bagaimana dibandingkan dg risiko mlainnya?

47 KONTROL PENCEMARAN AIR  Pencegahan pencemaran  Meminimumkan pencemaran –recycling and re-use; treatment; encourage cleaner production technologies; encourage good housekeeping  Disinfection (Chlorination)  Disposal or discharge of waste water –only under specified conditions; precautionary approach; differentiated approach; polluter pays 47 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012


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