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The American Journey Chapter 1: Expanding Horizons

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1 The American Journey Chapter 1: Expanding Horizons
Section 1: Age of Exploration c

2 Once Europeans came in contact with Asian goods, they wanted a faster way to get them!
Land routes = slooooowww Kings and queens wanted more loot! Better technology allowed it Why begin exploring?

3 Why begin exploring? Explorers could improve maps
Popular misconception: Most people knew the world was round, and Columbus did not set sail to prove it wasn’t flat. However, everyone thought the world was much smaller than it is (explorers didn’t know about the Americas). Oops! Why begin exploring?

4 What were they thinking?!
They wanted a way to sail WEST and reach Asia (which is east of Europe). Such a route would be much quicker. A note about these “stupid” mistakes… A note about the often cruel treatment toward natives and others… What were they thinking?!

5 Example of an ancient world map
They thought if you left going west… …you’d end up over in the East before long. So you can see why they were so surprised when America turned up and the world was larger than they thought! Example of an ancient world map

6 Why were the native warriors so easily defeated?
#1: Technology & animals Guns, ships, horses, dogs, etc. (think Avatar) #2: Disease Natives hadn’t seen cattle-bred diseases #3: Geography Alignment of Americas (N/S) vs. Europe (E/W) Proximity of population/animals (disease again) Distance between tribes (no one to help) #4: Ignorance Thought Spanish were gods & trusted them Why were the native warriors so easily defeated?

7 Spanish/English/French influence on America
Spain used pueblos, presidios, and missions to Christianize natives …which is why California has so many Spanish place names (San Diego, Los Angeles, etc.). Many English explorers landed in Canada and the Northeast …which is why we have New England, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, etc. Many French explorers landed in Canada …which is why they still speak French. Spanish/English/French influence on America

8 The American Journey Chapter 1: Expanding Horizons
Section 2: Rise of Modern Capitalism c ’s

9 What is capitalism? Capitalism is a free-market system.
Competition is encouraged between businesses. Businesses are privately owned, not government-controlled. The purpose of capitalism is to make money. Capital is a term meaning money. People own shares of companies (stock, etc.) One who participates in this system is called a capitalist. What is capitalism?

10 The Commercial Revolution
Before the 1600’s, most places were not defined as a country or a nation. Most powerful places were cities or kingdoms. As the world expanded, cultures encountered one another. This led to larger, more powerful nations. These nations wanted new ways to make $$! Exploration was a great way to make $$! But it cost a lot to send explorers… How to pay for it? Hmmmmm… The Commercial Revolution

11 How did capitalism come about?
Initially rulers borrowed from banks. Eventually, people set up joint-stock companies. These companies sold stock, or shares of the company. In this way, the company raised little sums of money, but from LOTS of people. If the company did well, so did the shareholders, so people wanted to invest. If the company did poorly, each person was only out a little money. How did capitalism come about?

12 How did capitalism come about?
Soon such companies became very powerful and wanted to make more $$. Entrepreneurs came up with ideas, got money, bought materials, and made their own businesses. This was much riskier, but the entrepreneur got to keep all his profits. Because the work was done at home, the entrepreneurial system became known as the “cottage industry.” How did capitalism come about?

13 Mercantilism was the idea that countries should make themselves rich by storing up bullion, or gold and silver. Many countries, especially Spain, went to other lands to plunder their bullion. Gold plundered through mercantilism plus the money raised through joint-stock companies and entrepreneurs led to very, very rich empires (capitalists). All these advancements together are called The Commercial Revolution. What was mercantilism?

14 What do you think happens when nations get rich? [discuss]
Life expectancy goes up More babies survive Overcrowding More leisure time to go elsewhere Demand for more material goods What happens when rich nations encounter each other? [discuss] Trade Competition War! Effects of capitalism

15 All these factors led to colonialism, the belief that nations should control other lands through colonies. A colony is a settlement of people in a new country controlled by their home country. Colonies allowed countries to expand to new lands, open up new trade, control more empires, and get more goods. America was a French, Spanish, Dutch, and British colony. Colonialism

16 The Columbian Exchange
The Columbian Exchange, named for Christopher Columbus, was the vast network of trade that opened up between the Old World (Europe & West Asia) and the New World (Americas, East Asia, parts of Africa). What was “exchanged”? [discuss] Look at pg. 96: Crops, food, gold, money, animals, practices, religion, language, etc. Most important and unfortunate: slaves and diseases The Columbian Exchange

17 Once Europeans began to grow crops in the Caribbean, they needed workers.
Originally they used Native Americans. Africans were later preferred, however. Between 1550 and 1870, million Africans were transported from West Africa to the Americas The long, brutal voyage by ship was called “The Middle Passage.” The slave trade

18 The American Journey Chapter 1: Expanding Horizons
Section 3: The Enlightenment c. 17th-18th Century

19 What was the Enlightenment?
The Enlightenment was a time between the 17th Century (1600’s) and about when reason and careful analysis replaced blind faith and the Catholic Church as the primary means of learning. What was the Enlightenment?

20 Ideas behind the Enlightenment
Greeks and Romans developed philosophy. Greek philo (love) + sophia (wisdom) Greeks developed democracy, wherein each person voted directly on all laws and policies. Greek dêmos (people) + krátos (power) The Romans set up a republic, wherein each person elected representatives to vote and conduct business. Latin republica (public interest/affair) Ideas behind the Enlightenment

21 Ideas behind the Enlightenment
Take note: The United States is not a democracy! It is a democratic republic (we have direct voting on some issues, but we primarily elect our leaders, who in turn vote for us). Rome also came up with the idea of rule of law, which stated that all laws apply to all equally. Ideas behind the Enlightenment

22 Ideas behind the Enlightenment
Jews believe that God has a covenant, or binding agreement between himself and his people. This idea of the covenant influenced Enlightenment thinkers to make contracts between leaders and the people. Another important figure was Yeshua Bar Joseph. Who’s he? [discuss] Jesus (whose last name was not Christ!) Christian values spread everywhere. Ideas behind the Enlightenment

23 Ideas behind the Enlightenment
Arab Muslims had a huge influence on Enlightenment thinkers. Medical, mathematical, and scholastic influence Beginning of universities The Renaissance was a rebirth (French renaissance means rebirth) of arts, science, culture, and knowledge. Remember how capitalism made nations wealthy? Now that they were wealthy, they could afford art, learning, science, and other ventures. Ideas behind the Enlightenment

24 Ideas behind the Enlightenment
The Protestant Reformation, in which Martin Luther formally broke from the Catholic Church, laid the groundwork for people to question church authority. Soon after, King Henry VIII took power from the Pope and formed the Anglican Church (Church of England). Puritans did not like the Anglican Church under James I and wanted to purify it. The Pilgrims, who sailed from England and landed at Plymouth, Mass., were Puritans. Ideas behind the Enlightenment

25 Ideas behind the Enlightenment
Why did the Puritans sail for America? They were dissatisfied with the Anglican Church. They disagreed with absolute monarchy, which stated that the king has total power. In 1688, English Parliament forced out James II and replaced him with William and Mary, his son-in-law and daughter. William and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights, which guaranteed certain rights to citizens. It inspired our Bill of Rights. Ideas behind the Enlightenment

26 Important thinker: John Locke!
THIS John Locke. Not this John Locke. Important thinker: John Locke!

27 Ideas behind the Enlightenment
Thomas Hobbes said that absolute monarchy is the best way to govern, since the people would make life “nasty, brutish, and short.” However, John Locke said that government should be based on natural, God-given rights and that the government was answerable to the people. If the government got out of hand, the people should be able to kick it out (social contract)! American colonists accepted Locke’s ideas. Do you agree? [discuss] Ideas behind the Enlightenment

28 Ideas behind the Enlightenment
Charles de Montesquieu wrote that English government (Parliament) was best, because powers were divided. Executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The Founding Fathers adopted these ideas. Ideas behind the Enlightenment

29 Ideas behind the Enlightenment
So…to review, when colonists settled in America, they brought with them… 1. Ideas of limited governmental power 2. The belief in natural rights for all people 3. Democratic and republican ideals, in which people got a say in affairs of state 4. Ideas of a divided government 5. Philosophy and reason 6. Contracts between powers and people 7. Capitalism How well did they do? [discuss] Ideas behind the Enlightenment

30 FIN

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