Presentation on theme: "Jim Crow Dr. Elizabeth Hines, UNCW Geography"— Presentation transcript:
Jim Crow Dr. Elizabeth Hines, UNCW Geography firstname.lastname@example.org
Slavery by Another Name By Douglas Blackmon PBS 2012 E185.2.S638 2012 Randall
Simple Timeline for American Racial History 1492-1898: Destruction of Indian People 1619-1863 (1865 in Texas): Slavery (Extreme Violence) 1854: Bleeding Kansas—expansion of slavery 1857: Dred Scott Decision 1861-64: Civil War—Yes, it was about slavery 1863: Emancipation Proclamation (1865 in Texas-Juneteenth) 1866-1877: Reconstruction (Extreme Violence) 1877-1896: Extreme Violence--KKK, Lynching “Redemption” 1896: Plessy v Ferguson 1896-1965: Jim Crow (Extreme Violence) 1915: Rebirth of the KKK 1954: Brown v Topeka, KS Board of Education 1955: Lynching of Emmett Till 1963: Murder of Medger Evers by Byron de la Beckwith 1964: Civil Rights Act 1965: Voting Rights Act 1967: Loving v Virginia 1968: Assassination of Dr. King Further…
Why bring Africans to the New World? Native Americans wouldn’t work in agriculture. Many didn’t survive. Those that did, knew how to get away. Not enough indentured whites and they were not permanent. It was harder for Africans to run away. Big money to be made in plantation crops: Indigo Tobacco SUGAR Rice COTTON Africans provided a steady labor supply, earlier through importation and then from natural increase. They were made obedient with terror.
Chief Justice Roger Taney writing for the court: Granting Scott's petition: “would give to persons of the negro race,...the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased,...to sojourn there as long as they pleased, to go where they pleased...the full liberty of speech in public and in private upon all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to keep and carry arms wherever they went.” Granting Scott's petition: “would give to persons of the negro race,...the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased,...to sojourn there as long as they pleased, to go where they pleased...the full liberty of speech in public and in private upon all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to keep and carry arms wherever they went.” “we are satisfied, upon a careful examination of all the cases decided in the State courts of Missouri referred to, that it is now firmly settled by the decisions of the highest court in the State, that Scott and his family upon their return were not free, but were, by the laws of Missouri, the property of the defendant; and that the Circuit Court of the United States had no jurisdiction, when, by the laws of the State, the plaintiff was a slave, and not a citizen.” “we are satisfied, upon a careful examination of all the cases decided in the State courts of Missouri referred to, that it is now firmly settled by the decisions of the highest court in the State, that Scott and his family upon their return were not free, but were, by the laws of Missouri, the property of the defendant; and that the Circuit Court of the United States had no jurisdiction, when, by the laws of the State, the plaintiff was a slave, and not a citizen.” “…the Negro has no rights which the white man is bound to respect.” “…the Negro has no rights which the white man is bound to respect.”
Harper’s Ferry VA, 1859 Mural Topeka, KS State House
What was Reconstruction? PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION: 1865 After Lincoln’s assassination, President Johnson tried rather ineffectually to follow his policies on the South. Southern states were required to accept the 13 th Amendment to have Confederate debt relieved. But Johnson ran afoul of the formerly abolitionist Republicans when he vetoed extension of the Freedman’s Bureau funding and the first Civil Rights Bill and acquiesced to the South’s new Black Codes, which essentially reduced Freedmen to plantation slaves.
Black Codes North Carolina’s Black Codes, 1865 North Carolina’s Black Codes, 1865 Short-lived precursors to the Jim Crow laws Black Codes adopted after the Civil War borrowed elements from the antebellum slave laws/slave patrols, “the patty-rollers,” and from the laws of the northern states used to regulate free blacks. Some Black Codes incorporated morality clauses based on antebellum slave laws into Back Code labor laws. For example, in Texas, a morality clause was used to make it crime for laborers to use offensive language in the presence of their employers, his agents, or his family members. Borrowing from the Ohio and Illinois codes, Arkansas enacted an ordinance banning free blacks from immigrating into the state.
RADICAL or FEDERAL RECONSTRUCTION: 1867-77 Republicans wrested control of Reconstruction programs from Johnson, adding the 14 th Amendment to the Constitution and passed a Civil Rights Act in 1866. In 1870, Blacks received voting rights. Other Radical proposals were defeated, including seizing land for redistribution to Freedmen, which didn’t happen but got a lot of attention. Martial Law was declared in 1867 and federal troops oversaw race relations in the South until the Tilden/Hayes Compromise in 1877.Tilden/Hayes Compromise For Ten years, Blacks were educated, voted, were elected to office, and many rose in status and income. In 1877 the troops were withdrawn and the South’s Freedmen were thrust into a condition called “Redemption” by white Supremacists. Carpet baggers were ejected and it was open season on Blacks.
What was Jim Crow? The name comes from a minstrel show song: Come listen all you gals and boys, I'm going to sing a little song, My name is Jim Crow. Weel about and turn about and do jis so, Eb'ry time I weel about I jump Jim Crow.
“Jim Crow” was the era of legal and social systems that evolved after the Plessy v Ferguson U.S. Supreme Court ruling of 1896. It was good and bad. It slowed violence against Blacks, in that there were fewer lynchings. It essentially removed the gains that Blacks had made during Reconstruction. For example, no Black person was elected to South Carolina’s House of Representatives until James Clyburn was elected in 1993. Douglas Wilder was the first Black governor of a state (VA), elected in 1990. But the losses in education, economic opportunities and the franchise were devastating, reverberating today. It nullified the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments to the Constitution and relegated Black people to second class status until the Civil Rights era of the 1960s. Some say that the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act ended Jim Crow. What do you think?
The Reconstruction Amendments The 13 th Amendment, 1864: Ended Slavery Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
The 14 th Amendment, 1868: Citizenship Clause Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. There are 3 more sections that deal with due process, equal protection, and dealing with Confederacy officials.
15 th Amendment, 1870: Voting Rights Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Homer Adolph Plessy, 3/17/1863-3/1/1925 A New Orleans Creole civil rights activist of African and European heritage. He could have passed for white, but he defied the NOLA segregation laws and was jailed in 1892 for sitting in a whites only railroad car. Plessy v Ferguson was heard by the US Supreme Court in 1896, which ruled against Plessy in an 8 to 1 decision. Justice John Marshall Harlan dissented. The doctrine of “separate but equal” became the law of the land, legalizing many laws that sanctioned segregation and were collectively known as Jim Crow Laws. Brown v Board of Education, 1954, overturned Plessy.
Jim Crow Era White Supremacist Riots Many, in some cases hundreds of African Americans died. 1873: Colfax, LA 1898: Wilmington, NC 1898: Greenwood, SC 1900: New Orleans, LA 1900: New York City 1904: Springfield, OH 1906: Atlanta, GA 1906: Greenburg, IN 1906: Brownsville, TX 1908: Springfield, IL 1917: St. Louis, IL. Chester, PA, Philadelphia, PA, Houston, TX 1919: Red Summer—Chicago, Omaha, Charleston, Longview, TX, Knoxville, TN, Elaine, AR 1921: Tulsa, OK 1923: Rosewood, FL
The Convict Lease System, 1865-1928 (but not really) “It was a form of bondage distinctly different from that of the antebellum South in that for most men, and the relatively few women drawn in, this slavery did not last a lifetime and did not automatically extend from one generation to the next. But it was nonetheless slavery – a system in which armies of free men, guilty of no crimes and entitled by law to freedom, were compelled to labor without compensation, were repeatedly bought and sold, and were forced to do the bidding of white masters through the regular application of extraordinary physical coercion.” Douglas Blackmon, Slavery By Another Name