2Colonialism and Imperialism DefinitionControl by one state over another placeOften, as state that is colonizing has a more industrialized economy than the region it is taking over=European nation-states began building world empires in the 16th century and competing for territories across the globe up through World War II1st periodThe 1st period of colonialism occurred after European explorers discovered land in the Western Hemisphere in the 15th centuryColumbus2nd periodOccurred in the late 1800s, as western European powers were competing to “carve up” Africa gaining more land to make them appear more powerful and to feed their industrializing economiesEngland and France occupied 70% of colonial territory in AfricaPortugal, Germany, Spain, Italy, and Belgium also colonized Africa
3Colonialism and Imperialism MercantilismEuropeans raced to form colonies in the Western Hemisphere in order to extract resources to send back homeDefinitionEconomic system in which a state acquires colonies that can provide it with new raw materials to ship back home and use in making products for the population of the mother countryOther motives for colonization were to spread Christianity and to bask in the glory of having more land than other states
5Colonialism and Imperialism Colonization fueled imperialismThe process of establishing political, social, and economic dominance over a colonized areaEuropeans acculturated indigenous peoples to European Christianity and cultureAlso destroyed indigenous landscapes and imposing European architecture to signify dominance
6Colonialism and Imperialism Dependence TheoryTheory: many countries are poor today because of their colonization by European powersCenter of neo-colonialismProponents assert that former colonies in South America, Africa, and Asia have not been able to heal from the imperial domination established by the European colonizers and are still dependent upon themIn most cases, political boundaries drawn by the colonizers according to resourcesWhen colonizers left and lands became independent states= violent ethnonational conflictsNigeria, SudanMany colonial subjects still trade with former colonial rulers as their primary source of incomeSenegal and France
7Colonialism and Imperialism Because the political and economic structures established by the Europeans benefited the colonizers, not the local people, essential elements of infrastructure were not built in most colonized landsWhen European colonizers left, education systems, health care networks, roads, communication lines, and other basic elements were not in place for the regions to thrive on their ownMany colonies left with finances or ability to develop basic infrastructureLeft little choice to turn back on colonizers and ask for loans to build up economiesTodayTo alleviate some of the effects of neo- colonialism, the American economist Jeffrey Sachs recommended that the entire African debt (ca. 200 billion U.S. dollars) be dismissed, and recommended that African nations not repay the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)NeocolonialismDefinitionContinued economic dependence of new states on their former colonial mastersAlso called “post-colonial dependency”the term neo-colonialism describes the domination-praxis (social, economic, cultural) of countries from the developed world in the respective internal affairs of the countries of the developing world; that, despite the decolonisation occurred in the aftermath of the Second World War (1939–45), the (former) colonial powers continue to apply existing and past international economic arrangements with their former colony countries, and so maintain colonial control.
8Geopolitics Definition Organic Theory Heartland Theory Branch of political geography that analyzes how states behave as political and territorial systemsStudy of how states interact and compete in the political landscapeOrganic Theory19th geopolitical thinker Freidrich RatzelArgues states are living organisims that hunger for land and want to grow larger through acquiring more nourishment in the form of landAdolph Hitler used to justify invasion of other statesHeartland TheoryHalford MackinderTheory that the era of sea power was ending and control over land was key to powerBelieved that Eurasia was the world island and the key to dominating the worldLinked to Communist efforts to dominate Eastern Europe and to the United States “containment” policy
10Geopolitics Domino Theory Rimland Theory Warns that democratic allies must protect lands from falling into the CommunistsBelieved that it would result in Communist domination of the worldPrevalent during Cold warLed to Containment theoryVietnam WarRimland TheoryGeopolitical thinker Nicolas SpkymanBuilt on Mackinder’s theory and defined rimland to be Eurasia’s entire peripheryEncompassed Western Europe, and Southeast, South, and East AsiaThought it was important to balance power in the rimland to prevent a global power from emergingLinked to the Vietnam and Korean warsCommunist and non- communist countries fought for control of peripheral lands in the rimland
11Challenges to Political-Territorial Arrangements Core and Multicore StatesThe region in a state wherein political and economic power is concentrated, like the nucleus of a cell, is called a state’s coreA well-integrated core helps spread development throughout the countryCountries having more than one core region are called multicore statesThere is not one dominate coreExample: NigeriaSeveral core regions compete for controlStrong infrastructural development can help distribute the growth generated in a core to less developed areas in a stateEx. Roads, communication lines
12Challenges to Political-Territorial Arrangements Primate CitiesDefinitionA capital city that is not only the political nucleus but is also more economically powerful than any other city in the stateOften exist in less developed countriesUsually where most of the resources are attractedExamples:Ulaanbatar, MongoliaLagos, NigeriaIn countries with primate cities, governments often try to spread the growth and development out among different cities, rather than just allowing it to focus on the primate city.Primate cities are also common in old nation- statesCity has been cultural center for a long timeExamplesBritainFrance
13Challenges to Political-Territorial Arrangements Forward CapitalsDefinitionA capital city built by a state in order to achieve some national goalExampleSaint PetersburgBuilt by Czar Peter the Great to bring Russia’s capital closer to EuropeIslamabad, PakistanBuilt to spread development out more evenly throughout countryBrasilia, BrazilMoved capital to help spread out population distribution
14Challenges to Political-Territorial Arrangements Electoral boundariesBoundaries separating legislative districts within countries are periodically redrawn to ensure that each district has approx. the same populationU.S. House of Rep districts redrawn every 10 yearsRedrawing usually assigned to independent commissionsExcept in U.S.
15Challenges to Political-Territorial Arrangements GerrymanderingRedrawing electoral boundaries to give a political party an advantageNamed for Elbridge GerryGov of Mass ( )Signed a bill to redistrict the state to benefit his partyOne looked like a “salamander”Political cartoon led to “gerrymander”Three formsWasted voteSpreads opposition voters across many districtsExcess voteConcentrates opposition voters into a few districtsStacked voteLinks distant areas of like- minded voters through oddly shaped boundariesEsp attractive for electing minoritiesSupreme Court ruled illegal in 1985But didn’t require dismantling of districts
17Challenges to Political-Territorial Arrangements Centrifugal and Centripetal ForcesCentrifugalDivide and tear apart a state’s people and regionsCan lead to BalkanizationBroke apart Soviet UnionExamplesSeparatism in a regionInternal boundary conflictsDeep religious divisionsCentripetalUnify a state’s people and regionsUnifying symbolsPledge of allegianceStrong identity based on language, religion, or other cultural traits.DevolutionDefinitionProcess of transferring some power from the central government to regional governmentsOften refers to the transfer of power that occurs when a state breaks upStates facing centrifugal forces are often forced to transfer to regional governments to reduce tensionsExampleScotlandPushed for more autonomy in 1990sEngland devolved more power to ScotlandGiven own representative parliament