Presentation on theme: "Global Media (Straubhaar & LaRose, 2006). Globalization “Globalization of media is probably most pervasive at the level of media industry models – ways."— Presentation transcript:
Globalization “Globalization of media is probably most pervasive at the level of media industry models – ways of organizing and creating media. The world is becoming a much more integrated market based in capitalist, that is, marketplace economics” (496). – Globalization: Reducing differences that existed between nations in time, space, and culture.
Globalization Globalization occurs through a number of channels, including regionalization and “glocal” production.
Globalization Terms: – Regionalization links nations together based on geographic, cultural, linguistic, and historical commonalities. When radio, television and satellite signals “spill” from one region to the next, national boundaries are undermined. – “glocal” production is the use of global media concepts in local productions. (example: The numerous international versions of the Big Brother reality television program).
Globalization Globalization is constrained, however by Cultural Proximity. – “Although geographical closeness or proximity helps media cross borders, language and culture seem more important than geography, as the example of Europe shows. It seems that people there and elsewhere tend to look for television programming, Internet sites, and music that are more culturally proximate” (497).
Globalization Terms: – Cultural Proximity: The preference of audiences for media in their own language and culture.
Globalization Globalization is not evenly distributed. Wealthy countries (e.g. USA, UK, Japan) import less media than poorer countries and exert a greater global influence through their exports. Successful media exports tend to overcome the barriers of cultural proximity through high production values and appealing to the universal human experiences such as sex, violence, and sports.
The Players Who are the major players on the global media scene? – Time Warner (United States) – Disney/ABC (United States) – General Electric/NBC/Universal (United States) – Viacom (United States) – Bertelsmann (German) – News Corporation (Australia) – Sony/Columbia/TriStar (Japan)
Global News As companies become multinational, they also become more global and less national in character. Wire services (such as the Associated Press), which were developed by U.S. and other Western nations, transmitted Western journalistic values throughout the world.
Radio Before the Telecommunications Act of 1996, Radio was a strong local medium in the United States. Because of the relatively low cost of operation (compared with television or film), local stations could serve the needs of the community directly.
Radio In many poor and undeveloped parts of the world, local radio stations don’t provide service to the entire country and international shortwave radio serves as an alternative. – Shortwave radio frequencies can be broadcast at a distance of thousands of miles, enabling penetration far beyond their original source.
Music Music has a high potential to move from local to global venues. Because international media companies seek out musicians from around the world to record and sell locally, they can also attempt to market these musicians globally for relatively little cost.
Film Because of the high cost of film production, many nations cannot compete with Hollywood, which exerts tremendous control over international distribution networks. In addition, most national markets are not large enough to sustain major productions. Other factors that give Hollywood an advantage include the size and diversity of the domestic market.
Television The early history of television resembles film in the sense that much programming was imported from the United States because of the expense of national production. Another quality that made American television popular was its orientation toward commercial entertainment.
Television More recently, international television production has begun to compete with television in the United States. Programs like Big Brother, The Office, The Secret Millionairre, and I Survived a Japanese Gameshow are examples of this. Part of the reason for the international comingling of television is the advent of satellite delivery systems which recognize no cultural, national, or even regional boundaries.
Telecommunications There has traditionally been a vast disparity between rich and poor nations with regard to telecommunications accessibility. Cellular phones and other handheld devices are beginning to close this gap somewhat. Access to computers is still very limited in some parts of the world.
The Internet The Internet has played a powerful role in the development of a global society. – Access to alternative news sources. – Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). – Community standards. – Electronic commerce.
Regulation The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has been successful in establishing technical standards for telecommunications. Other issues tend to be decided based on consensus wherein the more powerful nations tend to dominate.
Media Literacy Main Issues – The Political Economy of globalization – Cultural Imperialism through the media. – National development.