L ANGUAGE A RTS AND SCIENCES Expressive Receptive Oral Graphic
T HE FOUR INTEGRATED PARTS OF “ WHOLE LANGUAGE.” WE SHOULD BE PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP EACH. Expressive Receptive Oral speaking listening Graphic writing reading
D EVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE Natural conversation Real group time Open-ended questions Share & Tell Tape recordings Interviews Time and attention Active listening as model Rule about listening Tape recordings Music Sound games and activities Reporting Sound enhancers ExpressiveReceptive
G RAPHIC LANGUAGE Emergent Literacy vs. Reading Readiness
C OMPARISON OF EMERGENT LITERACY AND READING READINESS Emergent LiteracyReading Readiness
P REMISES OF E MERGENT LITERACY VS. READING READINESS Literacy is always emerging Built on oral language development Oral language pre-programmed (LAD) Literacy is also developmental process Writing Early scribbling Writing their name Inventive spelling Reading Using pictures to “read” books Identifying environmental print GOAL: MEANING (Correctness is means to an end; Desire to understand and be understood) Process-Oriented Intended by Gesell to be maturational Reinterpreted into readiness programs Focus on skills and drills Pre-reading and pre-writing, not a process GOAL: CORRECTNESS (Correctness is the end) Product-Oriented Emergent LiteracyReading Readiness
“R EADINESS ” IS A LOT MORE THAN JUST SKILLS ANYWAY Physical Eye muscle development, eye-hand and fine motor development, auditory and visual discrimination Cognitive Ability to utilize decoding strategies, memory, attention span Affective Desire, confidence, tolerance to frustration Social Role models, environment, facilitation Conceptual Symbols, structure of language, spatial relationships, directionality Experience With oral language, with books, with vocabulary
C HILDREN TEACH THEMSELVES TO WALK AND TALK. Similarly, children teach themselves to read and write. But they can’t do so in a vacuum. *They need a print-rich environment. *They need opportunities to choose their own reading. *They need their own words to read. *They need role models for reading. *They need NOT direct instruction out of context, but individual facilitation (LASS) The classroom is one wherein language is Informal * Purposeful * Appropriate * Fun * Personal * Non-Intimidating
C ORRECTING CHILDREN IS COUNTER - PRODUCTIVE Even when it comes to oral language development mothers and even older siblings instinctively know to avoid correction. Children will self-correct over time. New Zealand, the pioneer of “whole language,” serves as an example. We can provide posters, dictionaries, questions and our writing as models.
T HROUGHOUT HISTORY THERE HAS BEEN A DEBATE OVER THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY TO TEACH READING AND WRITING. I T ’ S NOT THAT ONE IS THE TRIED AND TRUE WAY AND THE OTHER SOME NEW FAD. The 2 Ways Are: Part > Whole or Whole > Part These are usually nicknamed: Phonics or Whole Language What we call “phonics” has dominated our teaching, but “whole language” can be traced back to Plato, later Comenius, but even before, to ancient African, Native American and Judaic traditions.
C OMPARISON OF “ PHONICS ” VS. “ WHOLE LANGUAGE ” “Phonics” “Whole Language” Product oriented Separate subject Work Abstract (no context) Skills training Teacher-centered Based on grade expectations Instructed Tested Whole or ability groups Corrected Oriented to memorization, repetition, recitation and performance Process oriented Integrated curriculum Exploration/play Concrete (in context) Meaningful activities Child-centered Based on experience and development Facilitated Observed Individualized Uncorrected Oriented to exploration, experimentation, invention, self- expression,
W HOLE LANGUAGE REFERS TO THE WHOLENESS AND INTER - RELATEDNESS OF LANGUAGE A whole language oriented classroom is characterized by: Reading to children Dictations (experience charts, child made books, captions) Environmental print Games Music Process-oriented development of skills As opposed to a “phonics” oriented classroom, known by: Workbooks Reciting Tracing Specific vocabulary words Direct reading instruction Testing Letter units
T HIS DOESN ’ T MEAN THERE ’ S NO PLACE FOR PHONICS Phonics is actually one decoding strategy among several Phonetic Semantic Syntactic Contextual Once the child is engaged in the process of reading and writing the teacher can determine the best individual strategy for that child Inventive spelling needs some phonics, but child-initiated Children with learning disabilities often need direct instruction But there needs to be an existing context for its introduction Very popular these days to combine the two But that makes for a self-contradiction Lack of consistent follow through leaves whole language distrusted
W HOLE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM (“language experience approach”) Horizontal communication Story time, with interaction Especially by kindergarten, an individual reading time Dictations Charts and environmental print Games, activities, music By kindergarten can start to introduce rhyming and starting sound games Prior to kindergarten games that develop the skills and concepts that serve as foundation Pegs, legos, art for fine motor skills/eye hand coordination Tapes, music, listening games for auditory discrimination Puzzles, lottos, matching games for visual discrimination Bingo, flannel boards, big books for directionality Experience charts, captions, cassette books for spoken/written word connection Labels, environmental print, job chart for written word/object connection Reading to children, reading oneself, appropriate facilitation and environment for desire
P RESCHOOL CLASSROOM Inappropriate to “teach” reading and writing to focus on alphabet except through games and songs Inappropriate to focus on spelling, tracing letters, handwriting, requiring name writing Should focus mostly on oral language as foundation while facilitating skills toward literacy in process-oriented way There’s no evidence that earlier is better the most literate country, Denmark, doesn’t start literacy instruction until 7 no correlation between earlier readers and better or more avid readers only correlation is between pushing children and non-reading
K INDERGARTEN Language area Reading time Journals Written communication Continued reading to them Incorporation of drama Big books Games Individual facilitation when ready Personal games, dictionaries, word files, key chains