Presentation on theme: "Discuss the following: -Which side was more prepared for war, why/how? -What was the Anaconda Plan and was it working?"— Presentation transcript:
Discuss the following: -Which side was more prepared for war, why/how? -What was the Anaconda Plan and was it working?
Objectives: 1)Outline the American politics and society during the Civil War. 2) Discuss the issue of blacks fighting in the war. 3) Describe the election of 1864. 4) Detail the end of the Civil War. 5) Identify what the true cost of the war was.
Dissent -Both the Union and Confederacy had to deal with disloyalty -Lincoln suspends habeas corpus -13,000 Northern Democrats (AKA Copperheads) were arrested -Davis denounces Lincoln’s suspension of habeas corpus, but then does it himself later Conscription -Both sides are forced to start using the draft system -The CSA would exempt planters with more than 20 slaves -Both sides allowed the hiring of substitutes -“Rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight.” Draft Riots -Many poor people in the North did not want to fight a war to free slaves (especially immigrants) -Riots broke out in New York City in July of 1863 -The NYC riots lasted 4 days -Mobs attacked newspapers, draft offices, and antislavery leaders Unity? Neither side (Union or Confederacy) was united or unified. Loyalties were divided, just as the country was split.
SOUTH -Union Blockade caused massive shortages of goods -Faced food shortages also -Inflation (the confederate $ is almost worthless) MEDICINE -Improved as a result of the war -Women worked as nurses -Clara Barton will start the Red- Cross in the U.S. after the Civil War NORTH -Most industries did very well -Economy was booming! -Inflation (wages did not keep up with increasing prices) SOCIETY PRISONS -Terrible conditions (the streams were both the sewer line and the drinking water line) -Andersonville held 33,000 Union prisoners (15% of them died while there) -Prison commanders will not be pardoned at the end of the war
"That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom. "That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which the people thereof, respectively, shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof, shall on that day be, in good faith, represented in the Congress of the United States by members chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified voters of such State shall have participated, shall, in the absence of strong countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such State, and the people thereof, are not then in rebellion against the United States." Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do, on this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and in accordance with my purpose so to do publicly proclaimed for the full period of one hundred days, from the day first above mentioned, order and designate as the States and parts of States wherein the people thereof respectively, are this day in rebellion against the United States, the following, to wit: Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, (except the Parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, St. John, St. Charles, St. James Ascension, Assumption, Terrebonne, Lafourche, St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including the City of New Orleans) Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, (except the forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, and also the counties of Berkley, Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess Ann, and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth[)], and which excepted parts, are for the present, left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued. And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defence; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages. And I further declare and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service. And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind, and the gracious favor of Almighty God. In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the City of Washington, this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-seventh. This did not permanently abolish slavery…it only said slavery is outlawed!!! The Civil War was not over, so the South did not follow this!!!
SOUTH -Considered for service in the military but never used -Emancipation Proclamation issued in January 1863 -Only freed slaves in former Confederate states (Not Territories) -Slaves in the south contributed -Used sabotage -Some passed information along to help the Union forces NORTH -Not allowed in the military until 1862 -Made up 1% of northern population -End of war, made up 10% of army -Earned much less that white soldiers -Executed immediately if captured by Confederates -Ft. Pillow: over 200 mostly black prisoners executed at one time The blacks faced enormous obstacles and prejudice in both the North and the South After the Emancipation Proclamation, compromise with the Confederacy is off the table. Slave resistance weakened the plantations in the South. By 1864, even some southerners knew that slavery was all but over.
Describe life in the North and in the South during the Civil War.
Democrats -Tired of war and high casualty rates -Many pro-southern party members -Nominated George McClellan -McClellan ran a campaign calling for an immediate armistice By the election of 1864, many were upset over the war’s length. Lincoln was not optimistic that he could win the election. Radical Republicans -Favored a harsh punishment for the South -Called themselves the National Union Party -Nominated John Fremont -Fremont actually drops out of the running as the tide of the war turns Republicans -Nominated Lincoln for re- election -Selected Andrew Johnson to run with him (a pro-union democrat from Tennessee) -Lincoln favored full readmission for all southern states Helped by timely Union victories in the fall of 1864, Lincoln will win the election for his second term. Unfortunately, Lincoln will not live to implement his plan for readmission of the southern states. He is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14 th.
The beginning of 1863 had gone well for the Confederacy. They had won at Chancellorsville. Unfortunately, Stonewall Jackson had died and the south was in need of supplies. Lee decided it was time to take the offensive…in the North! Gettysburg Pennsylvania Lee had the advantage and wanted to trip up the northern strategy in Vicksburg, Va. This is a 3 day battle. The south did well, but made some very costly strategic mistakes In November, President Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address. This 2 minute speech will become one of the most famous speeches ever given in world history! By the Numbers: -3 day battle -23,000 Union dead -28,000 Confederates dead -30% of the total Civil Wars casualties! The high amount of losses will hurt the south more than the north…Lee’s army will not fully recover
Three days after Lee lost at Gettysburg, Grant took Vicksburg, Miss. By July 10 th of 1863, all Confederate holdouts in Mississippi were under Union control. The South was cut in two! This marks the beginning of the end for the Civil War!
SOUTH -Running low on supplies, fighting men, and money -Jefferson Davis has problems with the Confederate government (he could not unite them) -In every southern state (except SC) soldiers turned sides, fighting for the north -By 1864, many states saw open meetings peace and eventually open opposition to the war NORTH -Grant appointed Sherman -Sherman believes in total war -He cuts a path through the south all the way to the Atlantic “Sherman’s March to the Sea” -Grant takes on Lee in Virginia -He could afford high casualties, and had them, as he promised Lincoln “there would be no turning back”
March 1865, Grant is approaching Richmond. April, Davis and the Confederate government fled the city. Lee met Grant at Appomattox court house and accepted the terms of the surrender. Within 2 months, all Confederate resistance was over!
CHANGE -Political Changes -Ended the threat of secession from southern states -Taxes are placed on income -13 th amendment abolishes slavery (1865) -Economic Changes -National Bank Act 1863 -Northern economy boomed -Southern economy suffered -Disparity between regions would not diminish until the 20 th century. COST -Union Casualties (360k dead/275k wounded) National debt increased by $2.63 billion Inflation peaked at 182% in 1864 -Confederate Casualties (260k dead/225k wounded) Debt ran over $1.8 billion Inflation peaked at 7000% Remember, it was the 13 th Amendment that officially and permanently abolished slavery in the United States!!!
What’s left in the aftermath of war Freedmen Ex-slaveholders Ex-free Soilers Ex-peace Democrats Ex-war Democrats TURMOIL AND THE TASK OF RECONSTRUCTION