3How Do These Effect Happiness? AgeVery LittleHealthModeratelyGenderGeneticsVery MuchIntelligenceLove and MarriageVery MuchChildrenModeratelyAttractivenessVery LittleWorkReligion
4The Pursuit of Happiness - Myers 7 Enablers of HappinessSupportive friendships that enable companionship & confidingA socially intimate, sexually warm, equitable marriageA faith that entails communal support, purpose acceptance, outward focus, and hopeChallenging work and active leisure, punctuated by adequate rest and retreatPositive self-esteem, feelings of control, optimism, outgoingnessRealistic goals and expectationsA fit and healthy body
5Dan Gilbert: Exploring the frontiers of happiness Video: Dan GilbertWebsite: researches_happiness.html
6Dan Gilbert: Exploring the frontiers of happiness Key TermsPrefrontal cortexImpact biasPsychological immune systemSynthetic vs. Natural happiness
7Positive Psychology & Happiness Discussion by Martin SeligmanAuthentic Happiness
8Seligman: Sources of Happiness Pleasant LifeMindfulnessSavoringEffects of genetics*Good LifeFlow in Work*, Play, and Love*Meaningful LifePurposeService*Play a very important role in happiness
9The Scope of Positive Psychology, continued Introducing positive psychology’s three lines of inquiryPositive psychology pursues three main “legs” on which the field stands:Positive subjective experiences (good moods, happiness, and love).Positive individual traits (character strengths and virtues).Positive institutions (families, schools, & supportive work environments).
10Positive Individual Traits Resilience: reacting well to life’s challengesResilience – is “a person’s ability to recover and often prosper following some consequential life event”.Some people even display posttraumatic growth, or “enhanced personal strength” following trauma.While resilience helps people rebound to pre-trauma levels, posttraumatic growth actually causes enhanced functioning, post-trauma.10
11Additional Information on Flow Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: Creativity, fulfillment and flow http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/mihaly_csiks zentmihalyi_on_flow.html"Flow" & Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
12Positive Subjective Experiences, continued FlowFlow – “the state of being wherein a person becomes fully involved and engage in the present time by some interesting, challenging, and intrinsically rewarding activity”.When in this state, people becomeLess self-aware and lose all track of time.Focus all their energies and attention on an activity where skill and challenge are in balance.12
13Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Flow, continuedFinding flowAccording to Csikszentmihalyi, we find flow when engaged in activities that have the ideal balance of challenge and skill level (see Figure 16.8).Once these criteria are met, the activity becomes intrinsically rewarding, produces positive emotions, and promotes goal attainment and achievement.13
14Figure 16. 8. The revised model of flow state Figure The revised model of flow state. According to the revised model, flow is experienced when a person’s perceived challenges and skills are above the person’s average levels; when they fall below, the individual experiences apathy. The intensity of the experience increases as the distance from the person’s average levels of challenge and skills grows greater (illustrated here by the concentric rings).Adapted from Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow. New York: Basic Books.
15Meditation & Mindfulness Continuing Research is revealing the efficacy of meditation, mindfulness, and activities that encourage them.2 Areas of focus in the research:Inactive meditation and mindfulnessMindful physical exercise
16Inactive meditation and mindfulness Typical to these approaches is…Instruction in diaphragmatic breathing to help trigger the parasympathetic nervous system response.
17Inactive meditation and mindfulness (Continued) Instruction in body awarenessAcknowledgment of sensationsProgressive muscle relaxation
18Inactive meditation and mindfulness (Continued) Typical approach: Instruction in awareness/mindfulness.The primary goal of meditation is not relaxation but awareness.” Minding the body, Mending the Mind, Borysenko, JEffective for anxiety and depression
19Positive Subjective Experiences, continued MindfulnessMindfulness – refers “to a cultivated perspective wherein people are sensitive to context and focused on the present”.When mindful, weResist the impulse to control uncertainty.Are less prone to evaluate ourselves.Are in a more flexible state of mind.19
20Figure 16. 9. Some qualities associated with mindfulness meditation Figure Some qualities associated with mindfulness meditation. People who learn mindfulness meditation can expect to derive some benefits from the activity. As you can see, the qualities listed here that are associated with mindfulness meditation fit well with established themes in positive psychology.Adapted from Shapiro, S. J., Schwartz, G. E. R., & Santerre, C. (2002). Meditation and positive psychology. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (pp ). New York: Oxford University Press. Table 46.1, p. 640.
21Dr. Victor Frankl 3 year Concentration Camp Survivor Wrote LogoTherapy “When we are no longer able to change a situation; we are challenged to change ourselves.” Frankle“I broke my neck but it did not break me.” Frankle"He who has a why for life can put with any how."Neitzsche
22Dr. Victor Frankl"Again and again I therefore admonish my students in Europe and America: Don't aim at success - the more you aim at it and make it a target, the more you are going to miss it. For success, like happiness, cannot be pursued; it must ensue, and it only does so as the unintended side effect of one's personal dedication to a cause greater than oneself or as the by-product of one's surrender to a person other than oneself. Happiness must happen, and the same holds for success: you have to let it happen by not caring about it. I want you to listen to what your conscience commands you to do and go on to carry it out to the best of your knowledge. Then you will live to see that in the long-run - in the long-run, I say! - success will follow you precisely because you had forgotten to think about it."