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AUDREY ODOM Literary Terms. Imagery Visually descriptive or figurative language “paints a picture” of the scene in your head. Hamlet:  O, that this too.

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Presentation on theme: "AUDREY ODOM Literary Terms. Imagery Visually descriptive or figurative language “paints a picture” of the scene in your head. Hamlet:  O, that this too."— Presentation transcript:

1 AUDREY ODOM Literary Terms

2 Imagery Visually descriptive or figurative language “paints a picture” of the scene in your head. Hamlet:  O, that this too too solid flesh would melt, Thaw and resolve itself into a dew! (Act I, Scene ii, Lines ) Imagery in Music  “Picture yourself in a boat on a river with tangerine trees and marmalade skies” -The Beatles “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds”

3 Simile The comparison of two very different things using “like” or “as” Hamlet:  Pale as his shirt (Act II, Scene i, Line 81) Simile in music  “Telephone wires above are sizzling like a snare” -Lana Del Rey “Summertime Sadness”

4 Metaphor A word or phrase used to refer two things to show that they are similar Hamlet:  To die, to sleep– To sleep, perchance to dream (Act III, Scene i, Lines 64-65) Metaphor in Movie Title  “Gone with the Wind”

5 Personification Giving human characteristics/actions to something nonhuman. Hamlet:  But, look, the morn, in russet mantle clad, Walks o’er the dew of yon high eastward hill. (Act I, Scene i, Lines ) Personification in Movies  “Ted”

6 Apostrophe The addressing of a usually absent person or a usually personified thing rhetorically Hamlet:  Let me not think on’t: frailty, thy name is women (Act I, Scene ii, Line 146) Apostrophe in Poetry  O Captain! My Captain! -Walt Whitman

7 Symbol A thing/theme that represents something else with a deeper meaning Hamlet: Poison  Poison is a symbol of disloyalty and corruption and death  Upon my secure hour thy uncle stole With juice of cursed hebenon in a vial And in the porches of my ears did pour The leperous distilment (Act I, Scene v, Lines 61-64) Symbols in Movies:  Luke Skywalker wear black throughout the return of the Jedi symbolizing the possibility of him turning to the dark side.

8 Allegory A story or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, an allusion to another meaning Hamlet:  O heart, lose not thy nature. Let not ever The soul of Nero enter this firm bosom. (Act III, Scene ii, Lines )  Hamlet is referring to Nero, who killed his mother, prior to when Hamlet is going to visit Gertrude. He hopes not to kill her. Allegory in Books:  Animal Farm by George Orwell  The Chronicles of Narnia by C.S. Lewis

9 Paradox A statement that says two opposite things contradict each other, but both are true Hamlet:  I must be cruel, only to be kind (Act III, Scene iv, Line 178)

10 Hyperbole Exaggerated statements not to be taken literally Hamlet:  With such deterity to incestuous sheets! (Act I, Scene ii, Line 159) Hyperboles in Music  “You Ain’t Nothin But a Hound Dog” -Elvis Presley

11 Understatement The presentation of something being smaller or less important than it actually is. Hamlet:  It is not nor it cannot come to good. But break, my heart; for I must hold my tongue. (Act I, Scene ii, Lines ) Understatement in Music  “It’s the End of the World as We Know It” -R.E.M.

12 Irony The use of words that mean the opposite of what you really think. Can be used for humor and drama. Hamlet: (Dramatic Irony)  Get thee to a nunnery. (Act III, Scene 1, Line 121) Irony in Movies  “50 First Dates” Adam Sandler doesn’t want a long lasting relationship until he meets a girl with short term memory

13 Chiasmus An inverted relationship between the syntactic elements of parallel phrases Hamlet:  King: Thanks, Rosencrantz and gentle Guildenstern. Queen: Thanks, Guildenstern and gentle Rosencrantz. (Act II, Scene ii, Lines 33-34)

14 Metonymy Substitution of the name of an attribute for that of the thing meant Hamlet  …To die, to sleep No more, and by a sleep to say we end (Act III, Scene I, Lines 60-61) Metonymy in Books  “Her voice is filled with money” -F. Scott Fitzgerald “The Great Gatsby”

15 Synecdoche A figure of speech in which a part is made to represent the whole Hamlet:  O, that this too too solid flesh would melt, Thaw and resolve itself into a dew! (Act I, Scene ii, Lines ) Synecdoche in daily phrase:  “All hands on deck!”

16 Repartee Conversation characterized by quick, witty comments Hamlet:  Hamlet: Well, God-a-mercy Polonius: Do you know me, my lord? Hamlet: Excellent well. You are a fishmonger. Polonius: Not I, my lord. Hamlet: Then I would you were so honest a man. Polonius: Honest, my lord! (Act II, Scene ii, Lines )

17 Stichomythia Dialogue in which two characters speak alternate lines of verse Hamlet:  Laertes: Where is my father? Claudius: Dead Gertrude: But not by him (Act IV, Scene 5, Line 28)

18 Stock Characters Character who is normally one-dimensional but sometimes stock personalities are deeply conflicted, rounded characters. Hamlet: Polonius  Polonius is a stock character because he has former wisdom but still provides comic relief. Stock Characters in TV:  Normally a guest star that appears for one episode is considered a stock character

19 Alliteration The occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words Hamlet:  With witchcraft of his wit, with traitorous gifts (Act I, Scene v, Line 43) Alliteration in Real Life:  Dunkin Donuts

20 Assonance Repetition of the sound of a vowel in non-rhyming stressed syllables near enough to each other for the echo to be noticeable Hamlet:  Doubt thou the stars are fire; Doubt that the sun doth move; (Act II, Scene ii, Lines ) Assonance in Music  “I’m a mess in a dress” -Orianthi “According to You”

21 Consonance Recurrence or repetition of consonants especially at the end of stressed syllables Hamlet:  No more, and by a sleep to say we end (Act III, Scene I, Line 61) Consonance in Music  “Whisper word of wisdom, let it be” -The Beatles “Let it Be”

22 Rhyme Correspondence of sound between words Hamlet:  …The plays the thing Wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the king. (Act II, Scene ii, Lines ) Rhyme in Music  “Hope that you fall in love and it hurts so bad, the only way you can know is give it all that you have” -One Republic “I Lived”

23 Rhythm A strong, regular, repeated pattern of movement or sound Hamlet:  The rhythm in Hamlet corresponds to iambic pentameter Rhythm in Music  All music has some sort of rhythm in it, the drums or the bass guitar usually provides the rhythm

24 Meter Arranged and measured rhythm in verse Hamlet:  When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause: there’s the respect

25 End-Stopped Line A line that ends with a definite punctuation mark (period/colon). Hamlet:  Admit no messengers, receive no tokens. (Act II, Scene ii, Line 143)

26 Run-On Line When the natural pause in reading does not coincide with the end of a line, the speaker continues without pause Hamlet  O God, your only jig-maker. What should a man do but be merry? For look you how cheerfully my mother looks, and my father died within’s two hours. (Act III, Scene ii, Lines )

27 Caesura A break between words within a metrical foot. Hamlet:  To be, or not to be, that is the question  (Act III, Scene i, Line 56)

28 Free Verse Poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular meter Hamlet:  The common people in this era would speak in free verse as opposed to the higher class, who would speak in prose Example of Free Verse in Poetry  “Winter Poem” by Nikki Giovanni

29 Iambic Pentameter A line that has ten syllables in each line, but the alternate syllable is stressed Hamlet:  To be, or not to be: that is the question. (Act III, Scene I, Line 56) Iambic Pentameter in Other Literature:  Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief, -Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet

30 Grammatical/Rhetorical Pauses Grammatical- A pause introduced by a mark of punctuation Rhetorical- A natural pause not marked by punctuation Hamlet:  But in a fiction, in a dream of passion, (Act II, Scene ii, Line 535) Grammatical Pause in Music:  “It takes two, two sides to every story” -Katy Perry “It Takes Two”

31 Concluding Couplet Two successive lines that are rhymed and have the same meter Hamlet:  Till then sit still, my soul. Foul deeds will rise, Though all the earth o’erwhelm them, to men’s eyes. (Act I, Scene 2, Lines ) Concluding Couplet in Poetry  “If this be error and upon me proved, I never writ, nor no man ever loved.” -Shakespeare Sonnet 116


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