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By Carl Sullivan.  World’s 4 th most common patent country (Japan, US, China, South Korea, Germany, in order—these are the big five)  Booming economy.

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Presentation on theme: "By Carl Sullivan.  World’s 4 th most common patent country (Japan, US, China, South Korea, Germany, in order—these are the big five)  Booming economy."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Carl Sullivan

2  World’s 4 th most common patent country (Japan, US, China, South Korea, Germany, in order—these are the big five)  Booming economy  Great food  And…

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5 http://www.wipo.int/moodle/  http://www.wipo.int/moodle/course/category.php?id=6  Guidelines for the Translation of Patentability Reports (K-E) Guidelines for the Translation of Abstracts (K-E)

6  “All translations should be written in clear, idiomatic English that communicates the meaning of the original text in an understandable way. The most important aspects of abstract translation are accuracy of terminology, completeness (no omission or addition of information) and an absence of grammatical errors.”  “Every effort should be made to use the most accurate, domain- specific and target-language- equivalent technical terminology in each translation”  “The IPC code that may accompany an abstract can be helpful in orienting the search for correct terminology. The IPC can be searched in English on the WIPO site at: http://web2.wipo.int/ipcpu b/#refresh=page and a Korean version is available at:http://www.patent.go.kr/jsp /ka/menu/support/main/Sup portMain0601.jsp”http://web2.wipo.int/ipcpu b/#refresh=pagehttp://www.patent.go.kr/jsp /ka/menu/support/main/Sup portMain0601.jsp

7  “The following sections include a variety of examples consisting of an excerpt from a Korean abstract and one or more translations of the excerpt.”

8 Titles The title of an invention states in very succinct terms the basic character of what is claimed. There are certain syntactic conventions observed in English titles which are easily understood – compound nouns and noun phrases predominate; articles are not used; active verbs generally appear as gerunds. Ex: 폐수처리장치장치 WASTEWATER TREATMENT APPARATUS A WASTEWATER TREATMENT APPARATUS 하향링크 신호 수신 방법 및 장치 장치 METHOD AND DEVICE FOR RECEIVING DOWNLINK SIGNAL METHOD AND DEVICE FOR RECEIVING A DOWNLINK SIGNAL 압축성형장치 및 압축성형방법장치 COMPRESSION MOLDING APPARATUS AND COMPRESSION MOLDING METHOD COMPRESSION MOLDING APPARATUS AND METHOD COMPRESSION MOLDING APPARATUS AND METHOD THEREFOR

9 Pronoun Use The meaning of Korean pronouns “ 그 ” and “ 이 ” should be preserved in the English translation, while avoiding the use of “it” or “its”. Ex: 열분산기 및 그 제조방법 HEAT SPREADER AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING SAME HEAT SPREADER AND MANUFACTURING METHOD THEREFOR HEAT SPREADER AND ITS MANUFACTURING METHOD HEAT SPREADER AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING IT 터치패널용 패드 및 이를 이용한 터치패널 PAD FOR TOUCH PANEL AND TOUCH PANEL USING SAME PAD FOR TOUCH PANEL AND TOUCH PANEL USING THEREOF PAD FOR TOUCH PANEL AND TOUCH PANEL USING IT 셀레나졸 유도체, 이의 제조방법 및 이의 용도 용도 SELENAZOL DERIVATIVE, PREPARATION METHOD THEREFOR AND USE THEREOF SELENAZOL DERIVATIVE, ITS PREPARATION METHOD AND ITS USE 입자 제조방법 및 이에 의해 제조되는 입자 METHOD FOR PREPARING PARTICLES AND PARTICLES PREPARED THEREBY METHOD FOR PREPARING PARTICLES AND PARTICLES PREPARED THEREOF

10 Introduction of Invention Typical opening phrases and suggested translation approaches:  본 발명 / 고안은 … 에 관한 것이다. The present invention relates to …. 발명 Ex:  본 발명은 … 을 포함하는 화장실용 광고판에 관한 것이다. 발명  The present invention relates to an advertising panel for restrooms comprising ….

11  본 발명 / 고안은 … 에 관한 것으로, 더욱 구체적으로는 … 에 관한 것이다. 본 발명 / 고안은 … 에 관한 것으로, 보다 상세하게는 … 에 관한 것이다. 발명 The present invention relates to … and, more particularly, to …. The present invention relates to … and, more specifically, to …. Ex: 본 발명은 광대역 무선 접속 시스템에 관한 것으로, 보다 상세히는 무선 접속 시스템에서 효율적인 시그널링 헤더의 구조에 관한 것이다. 발명 The present invention relates to a broadband wireless access system and, more specifically, to the structure of an efficient signaling header in a broadband wireless access system.

12  본 발명은 … 을 제공한다. The present invention provides … 발명 Ex: 본 발명은 탄소나노튜브 도전막 및 이의 제조방법을 제공한다. 발명 The present invention provides a carbon nanotube conductive film and a method for manufacturing same.

13  In the case of long and complex sentences, clarity may be improved by reversing the structure and using a colon and semicolons. Ex: 결핵균과 항산성비결핵균 검출용 프라이머 ; 이를 포함하는 결핵균과 항산성비결핵균 검출 키트 ; 및 결핵균과 항산성비결핵균의 검출 방법이 제공된다. Provided are: a primer for detecting mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria; a mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria detection kit comprising the primer; and a method for detecting mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria.

14  ( 본 발명에서는 ) … 이 개시된다. 본 발명은 … 을 개시한다. … is/are disclosed Disclosed is/are …. 발명 개시 발명 개시  With short sentences, this structure is preferred: Ex: 유기광전소자용 화합물 및 이를 포함하는 유기광전소자가 개시된다. 개시 A compound for an organic photoelectric device and an organic photoelectric device comprising same are disclosed.  Note: “ 본 발명은... 을 개시한다 ” should not be translated as “The present invention discloses …” because an invention does not disclose something. 발명 개시

15  With long sentences, this structure is preferred: Ex: 본 발명에서는 반송파 집성 기법이 적용된 무선 통신 시스템에서 사운딩 참조 신호들을 단말로부터 기지국으로 송신하는 방법이 개시된다. 발명 개시 Disclosed is a method for transmitting a sounding reference signal from a terminal to a base station in a radio communication system to which carrier aggregation is applied.

16  Disclosed in the present specification...  본 명세서에는 … 이 개시되어 있다. … is/are disclosed in the present specification. Disclosed in the present specification is/are …. 명세서 개시 With short sentences, this structure is preferred: Ex: 본 명세서에는 비디오 신호를 인코딩 또는 디코딩하는 방법 및 장치가 개시되어 있다. A method and a device for encoding or decoding video signals are disclosed in the present specification. With long sentences, this structure is preferred: Ex: 본 명세서에는 반송파 집성 기법이 적용된 무선 통신 시스템에서 사운딩 참조 신호들을 단말로부터 기지국으로 송신하는 방법이 개시되어 있다. Disclosed in the present specification is a method for transmitting sounding reference signals from a terminal to a base station in a radio communication system to which carrier aggregation is applied. 명세서 장치 개시 명세서 개시

17  The purpose/objective of the present invention is to ….  본 발명의 목적은 … 하는 것이다. 본 발명은 … 을 목적으로 한다. 본 발명은 … 하고자 하는 것이다. The purpose/objective of the present invention is to …. 발명의 목적 발명 목적 발명 Ex: 본 발명은 인체의 발 형상과 동일한 형상의 라스트를 이용하여 신발을 제조하도록 함으로써 편안한 신발을 제공하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 발명 목적 The purpose of the present invention is to provide a comfortable shoe by manufacturing the shoe using a last having the same shape as that of a human foot. The objective of the present invention is to provide a comfortable shoe by manufacturing the shoe using a last having the same shape as that of a human foot. The object of the present invention is to provide a comfortable shoe by manufacturing the shoe using a last having the same shape as that of a human foot.  Note: The translation “object” should be avoided, as this expression may be misinterpreted to signify a physical object; in addition, the translation “is intended to” should be avoided as it introduces ambiguity as to whether the purpose is achieved or not, and the translation “intends to” should be avoided because inventions are inanimate and thus are not capable of forming intent.

18 Definite and Indefinite Articles In abstracts, the first time a feature is mentioned it is typically preceded by the indefinite article, and subsequent references to the same feature are preceded by the definite article. These examples demonstrate this principle: Ex: 본 발명은 예압 조절형 리니어 가이드 시스템에 관한 것으로서, 본 발명에 따른 예압 조절형 리니어 가이드 시스템은, 베이스 몸체와, 서로 나란하게 상기 베이스 몸체에 설치되는 한 쌍의 베이스 레일을 구비하는 베이스 부재 ; 및 슬라이드 몸체와, 상기 한 쌍의 베이스 레일과 각각 서로 마주하도록 상기 슬라이드 몸체에 설치되는 한 쌍의 슬라이드 레일을 구비하는 슬라이드 부재를 포함한다. 발명 부재 The present invention relates to an adjustable preload-type linear guide system. The adjustable preload-type linear guide system according to the present invention comprises: a base member provided with a base body, and a pair of base rails disposed parallel to each other on the base body; and a slide member provided with a slide body, and a pair of slide rails disposed on the slide body so as to face the pair of base rails.

19  Note, however, that unique or specific attributes, or inherent properties (height, width, length, diameter, ratio, speed, temperature, orientation, direction, top, bottom, etc.) will take the definite article the first time they are mentioned. Ex: 본 발명은 가열실, 가열기 및 가열실 내부 온도를 측정하는 온도측정부를 포함한 가열장치에 관한 것이다. 발명장치 The present invention relates to a heating device comprising a heating chamber, a heater and a temperature measurement unit for measuring the temperature inside the heating chamber.

20 Singular/Plural Korean abstracts often do not clearly indicate whether there is one of (ora) certain element or a plurality of a certain element in an invention. In some cases, logic will dictate that there must be more than one of a given element, while in other cases, the drawing may illustrate the number of each element used in an invention. Ex: 본 발명은 전극 및 그 사이에 끼워진 유기층을 포함하는 발광소자에 관한 것이다. 발명 The present invention relates to a light-emitting element comprising electrode s and an organic layer sandwiched therebetween. (The expression “ 그 사이 ”makes it clear that there are multiple electrodes.) Ex: 블라인드 원단이 각각 감기는 상, 하부롤은 …. An upper roll and a lower roll, around which piec es of blind fabric are wound respectively, …. (The expression “ 각각 ” makes it clear that there are multiple pieces of blind fabric.)  Occasionally, it will be impossible to determine whether there is one or a plurality of a certain element in an invention, in which case the translator may use the singular form because the singular form does not exclude the possibility of there being more than one such element, whereas the plural form excludes the possibility of there being only one element.

21 Placement of Syntactic Elements Carefully consider how the juxtaposition of words and phrases can affect meaning or clarity. When deciding the placement of syntactic elements, use best judgment to achieve clarity.  Placing the adverbial phrase near the verb can be helpful in achieving clarity when the object of the verb is a long phrase: 본 발명은 활성성분으로 가르시니아 캄보지아 추출물 75 ~ 85 중량부, 대두 펩타이드 15 ~ 25 중량부, 및 L- 카르니틴 0.5 ~ 5 중량부를 포함하는 비만 또는 당뇨병의 예방 또는 개선용 조성물을 제공한다. 발명 The present invention provides a composition for preventing or relieving obesity or diabetes, the composition comprising, as active ingredients, 75-85 parts by weight of Garcinia cambogia extract, 15-25 parts by weight of soy peptides, and 0.5-5 parts by weight of L-carnitine.

22  Placing the indirect object near the performer of the action can be used to ensure that a translation does not introduce ambiguity: Ex: 상기 기지국 장치는 통신용 전력 설정 변수를 상기 단말장치에 송신한다. 장치 The base station apparatus transmits, to the terminal apparatus, power setting parameters for communication.  The base station apparatus transmits power setting parameters for communication to the terminal apparatus.

23  In other instances, placing the direct object near the performer of the action provides better readability. In this example, the direct object is a short phrase and the indirect object is a long phrase: Ex: 상기 기지국은 위치 신호를 송신하는 상기 이동국으로 채널 지정 메시지를 송신한다. The base station transmits a channel assignment message to the mobile station which transmits a location signal.

24 Relative clauses In addition, care should be taken that relative clauses be structured so that it is absolutely clear what the clause is modifying. Ex: 한 쌍의 레일을 따라 이동 가능하며 인출부재에 결합된 한 쌍의 활주부부재 a pair of runners which are able to move along a pair of rails and which are connected to the drawing member a pair of runners that are able to move along a pair of rails, which are connected to the drawing member  (In this translation, “which are connected…” modifies the rails, not the runners.)

25  Given that the use of relative clauses can give rise to confusion, it is preferable to use structures that do not hinge on “that” or “which” when possible. Ex: 이러한 신호처리장치는 기지국으로부터 신호를 수신하는 수신부 및 수신된 신호를 처리하는 처리부를 포함한다.장치 This signal processing device comprises a reception unit for receiving signals from a base station, and a processing unit for processing the received signals. This signal processing device comprises a reception unit which receives signals from a base station, and a processing unit which processes the received signals.

26 Splitting Up of Long Portions An abstract may include text extracted from a patent claim which has been drafted as a single, and often long, sentence. While not advisable when translating a claim, it is permissible and often advisable to split up long sentences for the sake of clarity in an abstract. When splitting a long Korean sentence during translation, care must be taken not to add or omit any text and to maintain the correct subject for each sentence.  Ex: 손가락을 고정하는 손가락 홀더와, 손가락 홀더에 고정된 손가락의 손톱에 이미지를 인쇄하는 프린터부를 포함하고, 상기 프린터부는 프린터헤드 프레임에 설치되는 프린터헤드와, 프린터헤드를 좌우방향으로 이동시키는 제 1 이동유닛과, 프린터헤드 프레임을 전후방향으로 이동시키는 제 2 이동유닛을 포함하고, 상기 제 2 이동유닛은, 구동모터와, 구동모터에 의해 구동되는 제 1 구동부재와, 제 1 구동부재와 이격 설치되며 제 1 구동부재의 전후 이동을 안내하는 제 2 구동부재와, 제 2 구동부재가 제 1 구동부재에 밀착되도록 제 2 구동부재를 상승시키는 제 2 구동부재 승강모듈을 포함하는 네일아트장치를 개시한다.부재 장치 개시  Disclosed is a nail art device comprising: a finger holder for fixing a finger; and a printer unit for printing an image on the nail of the finger fixed by the finger holder. The printer unit includes: a printer head provided on the printer head frame; a first moving unit for moving the printer head left and right; and a second moving unit for moving the printer head frame forwards and backwards. The second moving unit includes: a driving motor; a first driving member that is driven by the driving motor; a second driving member that is spaced apart from the first driving member and which guides the forward-and-backward movement of the first driving member; and a second driving member elevating module for elevating the second driving member so that the second driving member comes into close contact with the first driving member.

27 Pronouns Pronouns such as “it”, “them” and “they” should not be used to indicate the elements of an invention, as such expressions can often lead to confusion. However, the use of “it” as a ‘dummy’ pronoun (e.g., “It is possible to…”) is acceptable. In the case that a Korean abstract includes a demonstrative (e.g., “ 그 ” or “ 이 ”), the demonstrative should be rendered using a different expression (e.g. “therefor”, “thereof”, “same”). When the element or feature to which the demonstrative refers in the translation is located far from the demonstrative, which is located close to the referred element or feature in the Korean text, the demonstrative should be eliminated by repeating the noun to achieve clarity. Ex: 유기화합물 및 그 제조방법 ORGANIC COMPOUND AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING SAME ORGANIC COMPOUND AND PRODUCTION METHOD THEREFOR ORGANIC COMPOUND AND ITS PRODUCTION METHOD ORGANIC COMPOUND AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING IT 유기화합물 및 그 유도체 ORGANIC COMPOUND AND DERIVATIVE THEREOF ORGANIC COMPOUND AND ITS DERIVATIVE 본 발명은 스위칭 소자 뿐만 아니라 메모리 소자에도 응용될 수 있는 적층 어레이 구조를 갖는 반도체 소자와 이를 메모리 소자로 이용한 낸드 플래시 메모리 어레이 에 관한 것이다. 발명 The present invention relates to: a semiconductor device which has a stacked array structure and can be applied to a memory device as well as to a switching device; and a NAND flash memory array using the semiconductor device as a memory device. The present invention relates to: a semiconductor device which has a stacked array structure and can be applied to a memory device as well as to a switching device; and a NAND flash memory array using same as a memory device.

28  Adverbs such as “therein”, “thereon,” “therebetween” and “thereunder” are useful for avoiding repetition or sentences that would otherwise end awkwardly in a pronoun. Care should be taken to place these adverbs in the proper position.   한 쌍의 전극과 그 사이에 끼워진 적어도 하나의 유기층을 포함하는 유기전계발광소자  an organic electroluminescent element comprising a pair of electrodes and at least one organic layer sandwiched therebetween

29 Initialisms and Acronyms If a Korean source text includes an initialism or acronym that is used in English without including the expansion thereof, then it is not necessary to explicate the initialism or acronym. If a Korean source text includes an initialism or acronym together with the expansion thereof, then the initialism or acronym should be placed inside parentheses immediately following the concept it denotes the first time the concept is indicated in the translation, regardless of the structure used in the original. Ex: OFDM 변조방식을 이용한 무선통신방법이 제공된다. Provided is a wireless communication method using an OFDM modulation scheme. Ex: OFDM(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) 변조방식을 이 용한 무선통신방법이 제공된다. Provided is a wireless communication method using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation scheme. Provided is a wireless communication method using an OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) modulation scheme.

30 Empty Verbs Verbs such as “ 수행하다 ” and “ 실 행하다 “ need not always be rendered literally as “performing”, “carrying out”, etc. In some instances, these so-called “empty verbs” can be omitted when there is a more idiomatic alternative in English. Ex: 기판의 표면 처리를 수행하는 수단 a means for treating the surface of a substrate a means for performing treatment of the surface of a substrate

31 Phonetic Term Equivalents Although Korean terms rendered in phonetic transcriptions are often derived from English terms, it is not always appropriate to simply use the English equivalents of the phonetic terms. Ex: 자전거 핸들 BICYCLE HANDLE BAR 자동차용 핸들 STEERING WHEEL FOR VEHICLE 제어 타겟 장치 a device to be controlled 장치 핸드폰 a mobile phone a cellular phone a handphone

32 In some cases identical or similar phonetic expressions are used to signify very different concepts in English. Ex: 반도체 리드 프레임 SEMICONDUCTOR LEAD FRAME 관악기용 리드 살균기 DEVICE FOR STERILIZING REED FOR WIND INSTRUMENT 다결정 실리콘 웨이퍼 POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON WAFER 실리콘 레진 조성물 SILICONE RESIN COMPOSITION

33 Missing Subjects Sometimes necessary to add the appropriate subject to the English translation of a Korean sentence. Such additions should only be made when the subject of the sentence is unambiguous; otherwise, translators may attempt to resolve the problem by translating the sentence in the passive voice. Ex: 특정 어플리케이션을 다운로드 받기를 원하는 무선 단말기 a wireless terminal on which a user wants to download a particular application

34 “~”“~” Korean abstract often use the symbol “ ~ ” to delimit ranges; this symbol should be replaced with a hyphen or the word “to”. Ex: 1~20중량% can be written: 1-20 wt% 1 to 20 wt%

35 “ 이상 ” “ 이하 ” In addition, ranges expressed using the notation “ 이상 ” and “ 이하 ” may be translated in a variety of ways.  Ex: 2이상 can be written: greater than or equal to 2 at least 2 2 or more not less than 2 5이하 can be written: less than or equal to 5 at most 5 5 or less not more than 5 2이상5이하 can be written: 2-5 2-5 inclusive Note: This list is not exhaustive; the appropriate expression for a given context should be used (e.g. “longer”, “heavier”, “higher”, “taller”, “more”, etc.).

36  The numbers one through nine, cardinal or ordinal, should be written out in full (e.g. “two elements”, “first step”) unless expressing a measurement (e.g. “2 mm”, “7 m/s”) or a range (e.g. “1-5 g”). As of 10, the pure numerical form is used (e.g. "12 elements", "14 grooves", "36 perforations").

37 Comprises vs. Consists of The expression “an invention consisting of a first element and a second element” signifies that the invention includes only a first element and a second element, and nothing more. Meanwhile, the expression “an invention comprising a first element and a second element” signifies that the invention includes a first element and a second element, and may also include other constituent items. Note that proper usage is for a whole to comprise various parts (“a book comprises pages”); the reverse relationship uses the verb “compose” (“pages compose a book”) or “constitute” (“pages constitute a book”). As a matter of style, the expression “is comprised of” should be avoided. In Korean, the expression “ 포함하다 ” delimits a non-exhaustive list, and thus should be rendered as “comprise”. Meanwhile, the expression “( 만 ) 으로 구성되 다 ” delimits an exhaustive list, and therefore should be translated as “consist of”. The expression “ 필수적으로 포함하여 구성되다 ” falls somewhere in-between, limiting the scope of a claim to the specified materials or steps “and those that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristic(s)” of the claimed invention, and thus should be translated as “consist essentially of”. 구성 Ex: 본 발명은 베이스 몸체와, 서로 나란하게 배치되어 상기 베이스 몸체에 설치되는 한 쌍의 베이스 레일을 구비하는 베이스 부재 ; 및 슬라이드 몸체와, 상기 한 쌍의 베이스 레일과 각각 서로 마주하도록 상기 슬라이드 몸체에 설치되는 한 쌍의 슬라이드 레일을 구비하는 슬라이드 부재를 포함하는 예압 조절형 리니어 가이드 시스템에 관한 것이다. 발명 부재 The present invention relates to an adjustable preload-type linear guide system comprising : a base member provided with a base body, and a pair of base rails disposed on the base body, one parallel to the other; and a slide member provided with a slide body, and a pair of slide rails disposed on the slide body to face the pair of base rails.

38 Ex: R 1 은 페닐기, 벤질기 및 니트로기로 이루어진 군으로부터 선택된다. R1 is selected from the group consisting of phenyl groups, benzyl groups and nitro groups. Note: The expression “… 로 이루어진 군으로부터 선택되는 ” should always be translated as “selected from the group consisting of …”. 상기 표면층은 C 와 H, 또는 C 와 H 와 O 를 필수적으로 포함 하여 구성되는 유기수지를 더 포함할 수도 있다. 구성 The surface layer may further contain an organic resin consisting essentially of C and H, or C, H and O.

39 Steps In cases where a method or process is presented as comprising a sequence of steps, the standard formulation is “comprises the steps of: …”. When the Korean text contains the expression “ 다음 단계 들 ” or “ 다음공정들 ”, the translation may be rendered as “comprises the following steps:...” However, translators should not add the expression “the following steps” if there is no such indication in Korean. In addition, when the Korean text does not contain the expression “ 단계 ”, the translator should not add “the step(s)”. 공정 Ex: 본 발명에 따른 코팅 방법은, 1) 티타늄 또는 티타늄 합금 임플란트의 표면을 전처리하는 단계, 2) 인산 이온 용액 및 칼슘 이온 용액을 혼합하여 인산칼슘 이온 용액을 제조하는 단계, 및 3) 상기 티타늄 또는 티타늄 합금 임플란트를 상기 제조된 인산칼슘 이온 용액에 보관하는 단계를 포함한다. 발명 The coating method according to the present invention comprises the steps of : 1) preprocessing the surface of a titanium or titanium alloy implant; 2) preparing a calcium phosphate ion solution by mixing a phosphate ion solution and a calcium ion solution; and 3) storing the titanium or titanium alloy implant in the prepared phosphate ion solution. Ex (no steps): 본 발명은 티타늄 또는 티타늄 합금 임플란트 표면을 전처리하고, 인산 이온 용액 및 칼슘 이온 용액을 혼합하여 인산칼슘 이온 용액을 제조하며, 상기 티타늄 또는 티타늄 합금 임플란트를 상기 제조된 인산칼슘 이온 용액에 보관하는 것을 포함하는 것을 특징으로 하는 코팅 방법에 관한 것이다. 발명 특징 The present invention relates to a coating method comprising : preprocessing the surface of a titanium or titanium alloy implant; preparing a calcium phosphate ion solution by mixing a phosphate ion solution and a calcium ion solution; and storing the titanium or titanium alloy implant in the prepared calcium phosphate ion solution.

40  When the Korean text contains the names of steps, the names should be preserved in the translation. For example: 본 발명에 따른 다결정 실리콘 박막의 제조방법은, 절연 기판상에 금속층을 형성시키는 금속층 형성단계 ; 상기 금속층 형성단계에서 형성된 금속층 위에 실리콘층을 적층하는 제 1 실리콘층 형성단계 ; 상기 금속층으로부터 촉매 금속 원자가 상기 실리콘층으로 이동하여 실리사이드층을 형성하는 제 1 열처리 단계 ; 상기 실리사이드층 위에 비정질 실리콘층을 적층시키는 제 2 실리콘층 형성단계 ; 및 상기 실리사이드층의 입자를 매개로 하여 상기 비정질 실리콘층에서 결정질 실리콘이 생성하는 결정화 단계를 포함하는 것을 특징으로 한다. 발명 특징 The method for manufacturing a polycrystalline silicon thin film according to the present invention comprises: a metallic layer formation step for forming a metallic layer on an insulation substrate; a first silicon layer formation step for laminating a silicon layer on the metallic layer formed in the metallic layer formation step; a first heat treatment step for forming a silicide layer by allowing metal catalyst atoms to be transferred from the metallic layer to the silicon layer; a second silicon layer formation step for laminating an amorphous silicon layer on the silicide layer; and a crystallization step for forming crystalline silicon on the amorphous silicon layer by using particles of the silicide layer as a mediator.

41 Wherein In English patent language, the expression “wherein” is generally used to provide limitations and descriptions to the element of an invention which has been previously mentioned. Ex: 본 발명은 제 1 공기통로 및 제 2 공기통로를 포함하는 열교환기에 관한 것으로서, 상기 제 1 공기통로는 제 1 팬 유닛과 복수 개의 방열관을 구비하는 것을 특징으로 한다. 발명 특징 The present invention relates to a heat exchanger comprising a first air passage and a second air passage, wherein the first air passage is provided with a first fan unit and a plurality of heat dissipation tubes.

42 Means-Plus- Function Language Often the elements of an invention will be described generically in terms of the functions thereof; in such cases, it is common to use the structure “[element] for [function]”. Ex: 상기 신호처리장치는 기지국으로부터 신호를 수신하는 수신부 및 수신된 신호를 처리하는 처리부를 포함한다.장치 The signal processing device comprises a reception unit for receiving signals from a base station, and a processing unit for processing the received signals.

43 본 발명 It is common practice in Korean to refer to the invention as “ 본 발명 ”. This expression should be rendered as “the present invention”. 발명 Ex: 본 발명은 식(1)로 표시되는 신규한 디아민 화합물을 제공한다. 발명 The present invention provides a novel diamine compound represented by formula (1).

44 Formed With The expression “~ 에 B 가 형성된 A” should be translated as “A having B (formed) on/in/…,” rather than as “A formed with B on/in …”. This structure can also be applied to “ ~이 장착된~ ”, “ ~이 구비된~ ”, etc. Ex: 전면에 광고판 고정홈이 형성된 후면판 a rear panel having an advertising panel fixing groove (formed) on the front surface thereof a rear panel formed with an advertising panel fixing groove on the front surface thereof 내부에 상기 보호회로모듈이 장착되는 팩 케이스 a lower pack case having the protection circuit module mounted therein a rear panel mounted with the protection circuit module

45  Although this character can literally be translated as “each”, it is often used to make the associated noun plural (due to the lack of a grammatical plural in Korean). Thus, “ 각 소자 ”could be translated as “each element”, but in many cases the translation “respective elements” or “elements” will also be appropriate.

46 상기 “ 상기 ”is typically used to refer to an element, feature or step that has been presented earlier in the abstract. This expression can generally be translated as “the,” which is always preferable to “said”. Ex: 본 발명은 베이스 몸체와, 서로 나란하게 상기 베이스 몸체에 설치되는 한 쌍의 베이스 레일을 구비하는 베이스 부재 ; 및 슬라이드 몸체와, 상기 한 쌍의 베이스 레일과 각각 서로 마주하도록 상기 슬라이드 몸체에 설치되는 한 쌍의 슬라이드 레일을 구비하는 슬라이드 부재를 포함하는 예압 조절형 리니어 가이드 시스템에 관한 것이다. 발명 부재 The present invention relates to an adjustable preload-type linear guide system comprising: a base member provided with a base body, and a pair of base rails disposed parallel to each other on the base body; and a slide member provided with a slide body, and a pair of slide rails disposed on the slide body so as to face the pair of base rails. Ex: 서열번호 1 의 염기서열을 포함하는 폴리뉴클레오티드, 상기 폴리뉴클레오티드를 포함하는 형질전환체, 및 상기 형질전환체를 이용하여 지방산을 제조하는 방법이 제공된다. 염기서열 Provided are: a polynucleotide including the base sequence represented by SEQ ID NO: 1; a transformant including the polynucleotide; and a method for producing fatty acids using the transformant.

47  Due to the structural differences between the Korean and English languages, it is common for the order of the clauses in a sentence to be reversed during the translation process. In such cases, it is necessary to ensure that the expression “ 상기 ” does not refer to a nonexistent statement. Ex: 차량의 경사각에 따라 상기 차량의 속도를 제어하는 controlling the speed of a vehicle according to the inclination angle of the vehicle controlling the speed of the vehicle according to the inclination angle of a vehicle

48 대상 The expression “ 대상 ” is often used to designate the direct object of an action, and thus in many cases does not have to be translated literally. Ex: SRS 전송 리소스 할당 대상의 이동단말 the mobile terminal to which SRS transmission resources are to be allocated the mobile terminal that is the SRS transmission resource allocation target 감시대상 the subject being monitored the monitoring target

49 ~의 It is not always appropriate to render the genitive construction “ 의 ” in Korean as “of” in English. Often the relationship between the two nouns is better expressed in other ways. For example: Ex: 벽의 개구 the opening in the wall 제 1 단계의 혼합물 the mixture obtained in the first step

50  “ 복수의 / 다수의 [noun]” should be translated as “a plurality of” [nouns] or “multiple” [nouns]; the translation “plural” [nouns] should be avoided.

51  Although ”1 또는 2 이상 ” can literally be translated as “one or two or more”, the translation “one or more” is sufficient. Similarly, “ 적어도 하나 이상 ” can literally be translated as “at least one or more”, but the translation “at least one” is sufficient.

52  This expression is highly context sensitive, and is often rendered as “part”, “section” or “unit”. The translation “section” is preferred when describing a specific portion of a larger element; and the translation “unit” is preferred when describing an electrical structure for performing a process. Ex: 처리부 processing unit

53  Complete instructions for the translation and associated handling of the drawings associated with abstracts are set out in a separate document, the Guidelines for the Translation of Korean Drawings. This document provides clear guidance on all aspects of drawing translation, and particularly addresses how to add manual references to TIFF images.   Adherence to the drawing guidelines is mandatory. If you have not received the drawing guidelines, please contact the PCT Translation Service immediately to obtain a copy.

54  An extensive patent glossary is provided on the WIPO website


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