We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byCarissa Fellows
Modified about 1 year ago
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1 The Emergence of the World System The world system is the result of the increasing interdependence of cultures and ecosystems that were once relatively isolated by distance and boundaries. Of particular significance to the development of the world system was the European Age of Discovery, wherein the European sphere of influence began to be exported far beyond its physical boundaries by means of conquest and trade.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2 “ There is work that profits children, and there is work that brings profit only to employers. The object of employing children is not to train them, but to get high profits from their work.” Lewis Hine, 1908
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 3
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 4 Influence of the Capitalist World Economy The defining attribute of capitalism is economic orientation to the world market for profit. Colonial plantation systems led to monocrop production in areas that once had diverse subsistence bases (beginning in the seventeenth century). Colonial commodities production was oriented toward the European market.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 5 Wallerstein’s World System Theory Wallerstein has argued that international trade has led to the creation of a capitalist world economy in which a social system based on wealth and power differentials extends beyond individual states.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 6 The world system is arranged according to influence: core (most dominant), to semi-periphery, to periphery (least dominant). –The core consists of the strongest and most powerful nations in which technologically advanced, capital-intensive products are produced and exported to the semiperiphery and the periphery. –The semiperiphery consists of industrialized Third World nations that lack the power and economic dominance of the core nations (Brazil is a semiperiphery nation). –The periphery consists of nations whose economic activities are less mechanized and are primarily concerned with exporting raw materials and agricultural goods to the core and semiperiphery.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 7 Causes of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution transformed Europe from a domestic (home handicraft) system to a capitalist industrial system.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 8 Industrialization initially produced goods that were already widely used and in great demand (cotton products, iron, and pottery). Manufacturing shifted from homes to factories where production was large scale and cheap. Industrialization fueled a new kind of urban growth in which factories clustered together in regions where coal and labor were cheap.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 9 England and France The Industrial Revolution began in England but not in France. The French did not have to transform their domestic manufacturing system in order to increase production because it could draw on a larger labor force. England, however, was already operating at maximum production so that in order to increase yields innovation was necessary. Weber argued that the pervasiveness of Protestant beliefs in values contributed to the spread and success of industrialization in England, while Catholicism inhibited industrialization in France.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 10 Weber vs. Marx
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 11 Industrial Stratification Although initially, industrialization in England raised the overall standard of living, factory owners soon began to recruit cheap labor from among the poorest populations. Marx saw this trend as an expression of a fundamental capitalist opposition: the bourgeoisie (capitalists) versus the proletariat (propertyless workers). According to Marx, the bourgeoisie owned the means of production and promoted industrialization to maintain their position, consequently intensifying the dispossession of the workers (a process called proletarianization). Weber argued that Marx’s model was oversimplified and developed a model with three main factors contributing to socioeconomic stratification: wealth, power, and prestige
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 12 Industrial Stratification (cont.) Class consciousness (Marx) is the recognition of a commonalty of interest and identification with the other members of one’s economic stratum. With considerable modification, it is recognized that a combination of the Marxian and Weberian models may be used to describe the modern capitalist world. The distinction, core-semiperiphery-periphery, is used to describe a worldwide division of labor and capital ownership, but it is pointed out that the growing middle class and the existence of peripheries within core nations complicate the issue beyond the vision of Marx or Weber.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 13 Poverty on the Periphery With the expansion of capitalism into the periphery, most of the local landowners have been displaced from their land by large landowners who in turn hired the displaced people at low wages to work the land they once owned. Bangladesh is a good example of this in which British colonialism increased stratification, as only a few landowners own most of the land.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 14 Malaysian Factory Women To combat rural poverty, the Malaysian government has encouraged large international companies to set up labor- intensive manufacturing operations in rural Malaysia. Factory life contrasts sharply with the traditional customs of the rural Malaysians. Aihwa Ong has studied the effect of work in Japanese electronics factories on Malaysian women employees. Severe contrasts between the work conditions and the culture of the women generate alienation, which results in stress.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 15 Malaysian Factory Women (cont.) This stress has been manifested as possession by weretigers, which expresses the workers’ resistance, but has as yet effected little change in the overall situation. Ong argues that spirit possession is a form of rebellion and resistance that enable factory women to avoid direct confrontation with the source of their distress. Spirit possessions were not very effective at bringing about improvements in the factory conditions, and actually they may help maintain the current conditions by operating as a safety valve for stress.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 16 Open and Closed Class Systems Formalized inequalities have taken many forms, such as caste, slavery, and class systems. Caste systems are closed, hereditary systems of stratification that are often dictated by religion (the Hindu caste systems of the Indian subcontinent are given as an example). South African apartheid is given as comparable to a caste system, in that it was ascriptive and closed through law. State sanctioned slavery, wherein humans are treated as property, is the most extreme form of legalized inequality. Vertical mobility refers to the upward or downward change in a person's status. –Vertical mobility exists only in open class systems. –Open class systems are more commonly found in modern states than in archaic states.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 17 The World System Today World system theory argues that the present-day interconnectedness of the world has generated a global culture, wherein the trends of complementarity and specialization are being manifested at an international level. The modern world system is the product of European imperialism and colonialism. –Imperialism refers to a policy of extending rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies. –Colonialism refers to the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 18 The spread of industrialization and over consumption has taken place from the core to the periphery. mountain.com/interviews/people/father_ollie_williams.htmhttp://www.wolverton- mountain.com/interviews/people/father_ollie_williams.htm
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 19 The American Periphery Thomas Collins compared two counties at opposite ends of Tennessee, both of which used to have economies dominated by agriculture and timber, but now have few employment opportunities. The population in Hill County in eastern Tennessee is mostly white and opposes labor unions, which has attracted some Japanese companies to the county. The population in Delta County in western Tennessee is mostly black and strongly supports labor unions, which has deterred companies from setting up factories in the county.
McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 20 Industrial Degradation The Industrial Revolution greatly accelerated the encompassment of the world by states, all but eliminating all previous cultural adaptations. Expansion of the world system is often accompanied by genocide, ethnocide, and ecocide.
1 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. O v e r v i e w The Modern World System This chapter discusses the emergence and ramifications of.
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc The Modern System Anthropology: The Exploration of Human Diversity 11 th Edition Conrad Phillip.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1 ©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Modern System The Emergence of the World System.
1 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. O v e r v i e w The Modern World System.
© 2007 McGraw-Hil Higher Education. All right reserved. Mirror for Humanity Conrad Phillip Kottak Fifth Edition Chapter 11 The Modern World System.
Chapter 10 The World System and Colonialism. The World System –Truly isolated societies do not exist today –Modern world system – a world in which nations.
Core? Periphery?. Core and Periphery Model Polar Projection.
SOL WHII. 9. The Industrial Revolution began in England and spread to the rest of Western Europe and the United States.
Colonialism and Development. Imperialism Imperialism –policy of extending rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding.
World Views – Part 2 Structuralism and Marx and Lenin Linda Young POLS 400 International Political Economy Wilson Hall – Room 1122 Fall 2005.
1 McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. O v e r v i e w Imperialism, Colonialism,Development and “White Man’s Burden or Mission Civilisatrice.
Lesson 19: Global Inequality Social Problems Robert Wonser 1.
AP World History POD #19 – Revolutions in Europe Impact of the Industrial Revolution.
Started in England, because of its natural resources like coal, iron ore, and the invention and improvement of the steam engine. Grows b/c all nations.
Europeans first became interested in Africa for trade route purposes. They were looking for ways to avoid the taxes of the Arab and Ottoman empires in.
Chapter 16, Globalization The Development of Global Trade The Emergence of the Global Economy Globalization: The Continuing Process Population Growth and.
Technological Advancement, Industrialization, and Urbanization The American Industrial Revolution.
Industrial Revolution EQ: What was the Industrial Revolution? Page 20.
Social Inequality & Change. Social Stratification STRATIFICATION Separation of society into: Categories Ranks Classes Societies are stratified.
THE MAKING OF THE MODERN WORLD THE WEALTH AND POVERTY OF NATIONS LECTURE 1 – THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: ORIGINS.
Theories of Global Interconnections. Outline I. Myth of Isolation II. 4 Major Theories of Global Interconnections Dualism Dualism Modernization Theory.
Nationalism and Unification Beginnings of modern Europe.
Why are the North and South so different in their economic practices?
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All right reserved. Window on Humanity Conrad Phillip Kottak Third Edition Chapter 16 The World System and Colonialism.
The Imperial Age IMPERIALISM A practice by which powerful nations or peoples seek to extend and maintain control or influence over weaker nations.
Imperialism Review Chapter 24. What impact did King Leopold II have on the Congo region of Africa? The people in the Belgian Free State were exploited.
Slide 1 Introduction to the Industrial Revolution An Overview
Social Stratification & Social Inequality. Social Differentiation Different treatment of people based on status, roles, social characteristics Social.
CST Review Day 4 World History Industrial Revolution Imperialism.
POVERTY, AFFLUENCE AND SOCIAL CHANGE. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Most societies have systems of stratification – systems of inequality that rank people
Nov 6 th Sign in Finish Lecture 6 Lecture 7: Global Stratification Homework: Davis, Mike Global Slums Chp 1-3 Summary of SL Interview #1.
VIEWS OF OUR WORLD. GLOBALIZATION The process by which societies, cultures, politics, and economies around the world are becoming increasingly integrated.
What is the World System? How the world is structured by interconnection among different nations/ Societies How the world is structured by interconnection.
Industrialization. Preview and Processing What is a Industrial Revolution? Why would it begin in Britain? What is going on in the rest of Europe? Why.
Sociological Theory Not as boring as it sounds!.
Industrial Revolution SOL WHII.8. The Industrial Revolution began in England, spreading to the rest of Western Europe and the United States.
Chapter 22: The Early Industrial Revolution. What Caused the Industrial Revolution? Population Growth.
Using your m62 template The Industrial Revolution.
ECONOMIC CORE & PERIPHERIES Evolution of. Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution greatly impacted the areas it reached, but totally bypassed.
Commercial Revolution Mercantilism Capitalism. What is the Commercial Revolution? Period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism.
August 2009 Modern World History Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution Factors of Production – Land Natural Resources – Labor workers – Capital Money.
Chapter 9-3 Industrialization Spreads –I) Industrial Development in the United States –II) Industrialization Reaches Continental Europe –III) Worldwide.
Objective: Analyze the perspectives of the colonizers and the colonized concerning: A) A) Indigenous Language B) B) Natural Resources C) C) Labor D) D)
Chapter 11 Stratification and Global Inequality The Meaning of Stratification Stratification and the Means of Existence Stratification and Culture Power,
TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Europeans Build New Empires.
Building Overseas Empires Section 1 Analyze the causes of the “new imperialism.” Explain why Western imperialism spread so rapidly. Describe how imperial.
Rostow’s stages of Economic Growth or Development Model. -Proposed in the 1950s, this 5 stage model of development was adopted by several countries in.
WHY LEARN ABOUT THE COLONIES? Diversity: racial, cultural, national, religious, socio-economic, political, geographical Dominance of Protestantism.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.