Presentation on theme: "The War Between the States aka – The American Civil War."— Presentation transcript:
The War Between the States aka – The American Civil War
The Proper Name The Congressional Record of March 2, 1928, reports Senate joint resolution No. 41 wherein Congress recognized the title "War Between The States" as proper: "A War was waged from 1861 to 1865 between two organized governments: the United States of America, and the Confederate States of America. These were the official titles of the contending parties. "It was not a "Civil War", as it was not fought between two parties within the same government. "It was not a "War of Secession", for the Southern States seceded without a thought of war. The right of a State to secede had never been questioned. "It was not a "War of Rebellion" for sovereign, independent States, co-equal, can not rebel against each other. "It was a "War between the States", because twenty-two non-seceding States made war upon eleven seceding States to coerce them back into the Union of States. It was not until after the surrender of 1865 that secession was decided to be unconstitutional."
The Road to War The Election of With the ascension of the Republican party to power, Southerners feared a legislative attack on their society Dec. 20, South Carolina seceded Feb., Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas secede April 15, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee secede After Fort Sumter After Lincoln’s call for troops
The Road To War War Aims: North - Restore the Union South - Achieve independence Strategy: North - Take the offensive. Achieve war aim by conquest, subjugation & complete military victory South - Stand on defense. Avoid defeat until Northern population tires of war. Seek European recognition
The Road to War Correlation of Forces: Population size - Advantage: North Financial strength - Advantage: North Industrial strength - Advantage: North Political strength - Advantage: North Political unity - Advantage: Draw The imponderables - ?
The Road to War Production Capacity
The Eastern Theater
The Western Theater
The Trans-Mississippi Theater
Strategies Northern strategy Achieve military victory through a process of annihilation and exhaustion. Southern strategy Avoid military defeat while seeking a solution diplomatically.
Strategies North Strategy Achieve military victory through a process of annihilation and exhaustion. 1.Seal off the eastern seaboard 2.Seal off the Mississippi River 3.Seal off the northern border with massive armies. 4.Large scale raids to destroy enemy’s logistical base (added later by Grant)
Key Tasks of the USA 1.Control the Mississippi River 2.Liberate East Tennessee 3.Wage incessant military activity in Virginia a.Primary goal - destroy Army of Northern Virginia b.Secondary goal - capture Richmond 4.Maintain effective blockade
Strategies Southern strategy Avoid military defeat while seeking a diplomatic solution. 1.Should South stand on defensive or attack? 2.Which theater of war was most vital? 3.Davis wavered
Key Tasks of the CSA 1. Avoid destruction of the army 2. Prevent deep penetrations 3. Convince England that the South can win 4. Demoralize the northern population
War in the East
War in the West 1862
Battle of Hampton Roads 9 March 1862
War in the East 1862
Strategic Balance 1862
Emancipation Proclamation Abraham Lincoln: “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; if I could save the Union by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; If I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. What I do about slavery and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps save the Union.” William Seward (Sec. State): “We show our sympathy with slavery by emancipating slaves where we cannot reach them, and holding them in bondage where we can set them free.”
Emancipation Proclamation That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do order and designate as the States and parts of States wherein the people thereof respectively, are this day in rebellion against the United States, the following, to wit: Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, (except the Parishes …) Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, (except the forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, and also … And I further declare and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service. And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind, and the gracious favor of Almighty God. By the President: ABRAHAM LINCOLN
Lee’s Invasion Goals 1863 Get fighting out of Virginia and away from Richmond Relieve pressures on armies in Tennessee and Mississippi Acquire badly needed food and supplies Hoped decisive victory on northern soil would lead to recognition by England Hoped to demoralize North so South could present peace proposal