2SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed.a. Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade.b. Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African population, and African-American culture.c. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism.d. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening.
3Mercantilisma. Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade.
4Mercantilism Economic System Colonies exist for the good of the mother countryEnglish colonies can only trade with England.EnglandAmerica
5Mercantilism raw materials finished products Major goal: How? Acquisition of gold and silver through favorable balance of tradeHow?Colonies exist to provide raw materials & marketsImport vs. Exportraw materialsfinished products
6Trans-Atlantic Trade Controlled by British Navigation Acts (1660 & 1696):Required colonists to buy British goods onlyRaw materials were to be sold only to BritainManufacturing items in colonies was banned
7The “Middle Passage”b. Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African population, and African-American culture.
8Triangle Trade Trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas What was traded?Europe → Africa Finished GoodsAfrica → Americas SlavesAmericas → Europe Raw Materials
12Growth of African Population Grew quicklyWhy?English had taken over slave tradeNo economic benefit to indentured servantsEasier to controlRemember…
13African-American Culture Different in each regionSome Common Themes:ChristianityEncouraged by the Great AwakeningMusic → GospelUnique languages: Gullah, Pidgin EnglishMerging of African & European cultures
14Benjamin Franklin "If you would not be forgotten, as soon as you are dead and rotten,either write things worth reading,or do things worth the writing."~ B. FranklinBenjamin Franklinc. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism.
15-Henry Steele Commager (American Historian, 1902-1998) Benjamin Franklin ( )Distinctly AmericanSymbol of social mobility & individualism"In Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat.“-Henry Steele Commager (American Historian, )
16Benjamin Franklin Scientist Inventor Statesman Printer Philosopher ElectricityCharted the Gulf StreamScientistInventorStatesmanPrinterPhilosopherEconomistBifocalsLightning RodFranklin Stove“Founding Father”Signed: Declaration, ConstitutionPennsylvania GazettePoor Richard's Almanack1st Public Library in AmericaQuotesSayings“American Dream”Hard Work → wealth
17Franklin as a symbol… Of Social Mobility Born in Boston in 1706, 15th of 17 childrenAge 12 – apprentice to brother (James) a printerRan away to PhiladelphiaWorked odd jobs as printer/clerkFounded a literary societyFounded Pennsylvania Gazette in 1728Founded Poor Richard’s Almanack in 1733Born poorHard workBecomes successful!
18How did Franklin become successful? Franklin as a symbol…Of individualismWHY?The "American Dream"How did Franklin become successful?
19d. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening.
20The Great AwakeningSeries of religious revivals that swept through America in the mid-1700’sMajor Figures:Jonathan EdwardsGeorge Whitefield
21Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) "There is nothing that keeps wicked men, Preacher in Northampton, Massachusetts“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”One of the most famous sermons in American history"There is nothing that keeps wicked men,at any one moment, out of hell,but the mere pleasure of God."
22Excerpt from Sinners……Your wickedness makes you as it were heavy as lead, and to tend downwards with great weight and pressure towards hell; and if God should let you go, you would immediately sink and swiftly descend and plunge into the bottomless gulf, and your healthy constitution, and your own care and prudence, and best contrivance, and all your righteousness, would have no more influence to uphold you and keep you out of hell, than a spider's web would have to stop a falling rock…
23…And now you have an extraordinary opportunity, a day wherein Christ has flung the door of mercy wide open, and stands in the door calling and crying with a loud voice to poor sinners; a day wherein many are flocking to him, and pressing into the kingdom of God; many are daily coming from the east, west, north and south; many that were very lately in the same miserable condition that you are in, are in now an happy state, with their hearts filled with love to him that has loved them and washed them from their sins in his own blood, and rejoicing in hope of the glory of God. How awful is it to be left behind at such a day! To see so many others feasting, while you are pining and perishing!
24George Whitefield (1714-1770) The “Great Itinerant” Early Methodist Precursor to circuit ridersEarly Methodist"Father Abraham, whom have you in heaven? Any Episcopalians? No! Any Presbyterians? No! Any Independents or Methodists? No, No No! Whom have you there? We don't know those names here. All who are here are Christians...Oh, is this the case? Then God help us to forget your party names and to become Christians in deed and truth."
26The Great Awakening Man chooses his path. God chooses man's path. Major Emphasis:Free will > PredestinationDemocracy > MonarchyMan chooses his path.God chooses man's path.FreedomNot Free
27More emotional than Puritan/Anglican services Appealed to poor/slaves SignificanceGrowth of Baptist and Methodist churches in America -- Why?Expanded education by the founding of new colleges, Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth.Democratized religionMore emotional than Puritan/Anglican services Appealed to poor/slavesDestroyed religious theocracy