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Chapter 9 Cool/ Third Stream
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 2 Cool contrasted with Bop Understated playing style –Relaxed tempos –Subtle instrumental colors –Emotional detachment Ensembles larger then in bop –Emphasis on tonal colors and harmonic possibilities –Likened to jazz chamber music Refer to demonstration 7
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 3 Cool contrasted with Bop -continued- Conservative playing style like pastel colors –Conservatory trained musicians –Orchestral conception Expanded forms and solo space Delicate attacks Little or no vibrato Middle register playing
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 4 New instruments A number of instruments not previously associated with jazz were used –Bowed string instruments –Orchestral woodwinds Flugelhorn –Same key as trumpet –Conical bore produces darker, warmer sound
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 5 Third-stream music A version of cool wherein classical forms and devices were used –Rondos and fugues –Polymeter –Longer orchestral type works Reaction by the public was mixed
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 6 Cool era bands Woody Herman ( ) –Clarinetist, band leader –Four Brothers sound ca –Featured 3 tenor saxes and a baritone –Proved that independent minded musicians could play well together
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 7 The Performers Gil Evans/Miles Davis –The subtle arranging style of Evans complimented the understated playing of Davis –Former members of the Claude Thornhill Band –Effectively highlighted Davis’s talents –Yielded “Birth of the Cool” sessions in 1949
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 8 The Performers -continued- Gerry Mulligan ( ) –Popularized the sound of baritone saxophone –Played with Miles Davis, Claude Thornhill, Stan Kenton Lennie Tristano ( ) –Pianist –Explored a compositional alternative to bop –Subtle yet complex arrangements were influential Gerry Mulligan
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 9 The Performers -continued- Bill Evans ( ) –Introspective style influenced a generation of future pianists –Classically trained and influenced, he explored third- stream and collaborated with Miles Davis –Wrote many interesting tunes and won Grammy awards for solo recordings Listen to “Autumn Leaves” CD 2 track 6
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 10 West Coast Jazz Little difference stylistically from cool played on the East Coast Different audience, setting, and some different players Many were former Kenton Band members –Shorty Rogers, Shelley Manne, Stan Getz Lighthouse at Hermosa Beach was the center of much activity in the developing style
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 11 Third Stream Jazz has borrowed from many traditions including classical Beginning in the 50s, many artists began to use classical forms and devices e.g. fugue, canon, theme and variations Another approach was to play a pre- composed classical piece in a jazz style
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 12 The Modern Jazz Quartet Pivotal group between cool and third stream Together for over 40 years Listen to their most well known piece “Django” CD 2, track 1
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 13 Jazz and Classical 20th century non-jazz composers have successfully infused jazz into their music –Gershwin, Milhaud, Stravinsky Such works not considered third stream because they did not originate in the jazz tradition Both stylistic streams have been enriched by the other
© 2009 McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 14 The Brazilian Wave Jazz musicians were influenced by lighter, gentler samba called “Bossa Nova” Particularly suited to the West Coast style and musicians like Stan Getz and guitarist Charlie Byrd The first of many Latin styles and influences that would become part of the mainstream of jazz from the 60s onward
Chapter 12- Jazz-Rock Styles My main thing is to create and not to compare… I dont wanna be like I used to be years ago… Stravinsky never wrote anything.
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