Presentation on theme: "On Endings HUM 2052: Civilization II Spring 2015 Dr. Perdigao January 30, 2015."— Presentation transcript:
On Endings HUM 2052: Civilization II Spring 2015 Dr. Perdigao January 30, 2015
“Put into a Book”—Sansón Carrasco telling them of the success of part I; makes no sense to them because of timeframe of the story (“the blood of the enemies he had slain was not yet dry on the blade of his sword; and here they were trying to tell him that his high deeds of chivalry were already circulating in printed form”) (2301) “If it was true that such a history existed, being about a knight-errant, then it must be eloquent and lofty in tone, a splendid and distinguished piece of work and veracious in its details” (2301); reference to Cid Hamete Benengeli Tells of important adventures—windmills, fulling mill, sheep, burial, freeing of slaves, Benedictine giants and Biscayan (2302-3) “You may be sure that Aeneas was not as pious as Vergil would have us believe, nor was Ulysses as wise as Homer depicts him” (2303) “That is true enough... But it is one thing to write as a poet and another as a historian. The former may narrate or sing of things not as they were but as they should have been; the latter must describe them not as they should have been but as they were, without adding to or detracting from the truth in any degree whatsoever” (2303). The Book Within
Knight of the Wood (2307; Pt. II, Chapter 12)—then Chapter 15, Knight of the Mirrors—introduces Casildea de Vandalia (his version of Dulcinea), squire (2310), says he defeated Don Quixote (2317) Play with self-referentiality, the text within the text as characters discuss their stories with their “mirrors” Don Quixote says to Sancho: “holding up a mirror for us at each step that we take, wherein we may observe, vividly depicted, all the varied aspects of human life; and I may add that there is nothing that shows us more clearly, by similitude, what we are and what we ought to be than do plays and players” (2307). Transform the Knight of the Mirrors to Sansón Carrasco—like windmill adversary, under enchantment but really Tomé Cecial (Sancho’s neighbor) with him Shattering the Illusion
In response to Tomé’s question about who is crazier—one who cannot help it or one who turns crazy of his own free will, Sansón says, “the one who cannot help being crazy will be so always, while the one who is a madman by choice can leave off being one whenever he so desires” (2324). Story of plot to bring Don Quixote back revealed (2324) Sir Knight of the Mournful Countenance: Knight of the Lions; Knight of the Green- colored Greatcoat (Don Diego) Don Diego: “The knight impressed him as being a crazy sane man and an insane one on the verge of sanity” (2337). Now Knight of the White Moon—Sansón Carrasco, seeking return of DQ “whose madness and absurdities inspire pity in all of us” (2341)—after defeat, DQ must return home for a year After loss to the Knight of the White Moon, Sancho “brokenhearted” because “all this was something that was happening in a dream and that everything was the result of magic” (2341); own hopes “whirled away” Mirroring
Don Antonio: “most charming madman”; “Do you not see that the benefit accomplished by restoring Don Quixote to his senses can never equal the pleasure which others derive from his vagaries?” (2342) New plot as pastoral romance, shepherds Sansón “composing pastoral or courtly verses or whatever may come to mind, by way of a diversion for us” (2344) Finally, presence of God—his sins (2347), returns to self like Sansón but Sansón encourages illusion The curate: “It is true enough... That Alsono Quijano the Good is dying, and it is also true that he is a sane man” (2348) “I was Don Quixote de la Mancha, and now I am, as I have said, Alonso Quijano the Good” (2348) Apology to Cervantes with disavowal of the story, to author of false sequel Denouement
The Sense of an Ending Dying and living well, as in Montaigne’s philosophies: “for it seems to me that what we actually see in these nations surpasses not only all the pictures in which poets have idealized the golden age and all their inventions in imagining a happy state of man, but also the conceptions and the very desire of philosophy” (Montaigne, “Of Cannibals” 2193). Denouement as spiritual conversion, from knight-errantry to Christianity Happy ending in spiritual sense No reason for his death except his melancholy DQ ultimately realizes who he is and denies all doings on deathbed as illusions, dies a Christian death Quixote is not mad but sane and artistically cruel, enjoying the madness he creates, play-acts for power (connection to Machiavelli) Is conversion play-acting? (connection to Hamlet) Quixote to be loved or shunned?
Last Act(s) Is society or the individual insane? Is quixotic quest inherent to human condition, thus showing us the flaws in ourselves? Dulcinea in center of piece like Velasquez’s king and queen, but never seen— play with inside and outside For Montaigne, illusion finally breaks down—question of “Who am I?” remains... “the greatest madness man can be guilty of in his life is to die without good reason” (2348). Sancho and Quixote in process of education, to teach each other Denounces books but returns with one last heroic tale in final verses Last reference to Cid Hamete Benengeli as “original” author