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Delay bounded Routing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks Antonios Skordylis Niki Trigoni MobiHoc 2008 Slides by Alex Papadimitriou

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Delay bounded Routing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks Classify Vanet applications: Those that require broadcasting of information from one vehicle to many nearby vehicles, collision avoidance. Those that require the propagation of information hop- by-hop to a single destination point or area, send an advertisement. Motivating example: Ambient traffic sensor application, wherein vehicles are equipped with sensors that detect accidents and traffic. On detection, vehicles attempt to notify the city’s traffic monitoring center, by sending information to roadside units or access points (AP)

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Delay bounded Routing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks Messages may have different priorities, and thus delay thresholds until they are delivered. The algorithms are traffic-informed and they adapt their behavior depending on the traffic density and the average vehicle speed on different road segments. We must try to satisfy application requirements for bounded delays in packet delivery, whilst trying to minimize the utilization of the wireless medium. The key is to take into consideration statistics of vehicle density and speed in various parts of the city.

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Delay bounded Routing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks Assumptions Location Aware Vehicles. Equipped with GPS. Have access to digital map of the area. The map is preloaded with historical traffic statistics about the street network. They contain average speed, average vehicle density per road segment. Statistics can be updated once a vehicle comes into contact with an access point. Communication with other vehicles or APs at 250 meters. APs can communicate with each other, their location is known and are installed at intersections. Vehicles have very large buffers. Objective is to devise carry and forward algorithms that leverage knowledge of traffic statistics in an urban stetting to enable timely delivery of messages whilst minimizing transmissions and optimizing bandwidth utilization.

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Delay bounded Routing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks Multihop Forwarding Aggressive Forwarding of messages to vehicles that are better positioned to deliver them to an access point. Data Muling Buffering messages in local memory and carrying them at the vehicle’s speed. The novelty lies in their careful alternation between the two strategies to achieve a good tradeoff between delay and communication cost.

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Delay bounded Routing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks Delay Bounded Greedy Algorithm (D-Greedy) Requires no knowledge of global traffic conditions, relies on local information to make forwarding decisions. Assumes that the best path to an AP is the shortest one, i.e. the path that minimizes the sum of the lengths of the edges on the directed Graph G that abstracts the street map. When multiple APs exist, the algorithm selects the closest one. Each vehicle maintains a neighbor list by periodically broadcasting beacons, containing vehicle ID and minimum path length to closest AP, which is computed by running Dijkstra. Each message has a TTL value. Each edge on the path is allocated a delay budget that is proportional to its length. As long as the actual time spent by the carrying vehicle that travels along an edge does not exceed the delay allocated to that edge, the Data Muling strategy is selected for the message. Otherwise, use Multihop Forwarding.

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Delay bounded Routing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks Delay Bounded Min-Cost Forwarding (D-Min-Cost) Requires knowledge of global traffic conditions, i.e. statistical information about the speed and density of cars on every road segment of the city. Each edge: Cost= number of message transmissions along the edge. Delay= Time required to forward a message along the edge. Choose the minimum cost path, such that the total delay of the path does not exceed the message delay budget. D-Min-Cost utilizes one such heuristic, the Delay Scaling Algorithm, in order to efficiently compute delay-constrained least cost paths from the vehicle’s location to all access points on the network. Therefore we know: Access point that can be reached with the least cost, exact min-cost path to that access point, strategy that should be followed at each edge of the path.

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