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Integrating Lab and Lecture Breaking Down the Barrier Between Concepts and Practice Joseph J. Biernacki Department of Chemical Engineering QEP Workshop.

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Presentation on theme: "Integrating Lab and Lecture Breaking Down the Barrier Between Concepts and Practice Joseph J. Biernacki Department of Chemical Engineering QEP Workshop."— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrating Lab and Lecture Breaking Down the Barrier Between Concepts and Practice Joseph J. Biernacki Department of Chemical Engineering QEP Workshop Tennessee Technological University February 17, 2007

2 For some strange reason… As a result: students separate theory and practice in their head, students separate theory and practice in their head, concepts become increasingly abstract, concepts become increasingly abstract, practice becomes increasingly removed from conceptual basis. practice becomes increasingly removed from conceptual basis. … we (teachers) have fostered a learning environment that separates concepts and practice. There are some exceptions to learn from : Athletic coaches wouldn’t dream of “lecturing” about playing. Athletic coaches wouldn’t dream of “lecturing” about playing. Can you imagine a music teacher talking about how to play an instrument. Can you imagine a music teacher talking about how to play an instrument. Art 101 involves mostly producing artworks. Art 101 involves mostly producing artworks.

3 Integration of Lab and Lecture other ways of saying the same Relating theory and practice Relating theory and practice Translating concepts to implementation Translating concepts to implementation Merging the classroom and the real world Merging the classroom and the real world Make up your own… Make up your own…

4 What’s my activity all about? Breaking down the barrier between theory (concepts, the classroom, lecture) and practice (laboratory, the real world, the field, implementation). Breaking down the barrier between theory (concepts, the classroom, lecture) and practice (laboratory, the real world, the field, implementation).

5 What disciplines might benefit? Any discipline with conceptual foundations that are used to describe real world observations, i.e. the sciences, psychology, mathematics, anthropology, philosophy, sociology, education, economics, marketing, music, etc. Any discipline with conceptual foundations that are used to describe real world observations, i.e. the sciences, psychology, mathematics, anthropology, philosophy, sociology, education, economics, marketing, music, etc.

6 What is my job? To catalyze your thinking about transitioning to a teaching mode wherein concepts and practice form a continuum. To catalyze your thinking about transitioning to a teaching mode wherein concepts and practice form a continuum. To facilitate you in transforming your classroom or laboratory into an Integrated Learning Environment wherein students learn to view real-world outcomes as the result of processes + that have conceptual * descriptions. To facilitate you in transforming your classroom or laboratory into an Integrated Learning Environment wherein students learn to view real-world outcomes as the result of processes + that have conceptual * descriptions. To model the use of an active learning environment during this workshop. To model the use of an active learning environment during this workshop. + For the physical science, “processes” implies “physical processes.” * For the mathematics-based sciences “conceptual” implies “mathematical.”

7 Integrating Laboratory and Lecture Breaking Down the Barrier Between Concepts and Practice Workshop Outline Part I Part I A. learning about learning (10 minutes) A. learning about learning (10 minutes) B. demonstrate my approach (25 minutes) B. demonstrate my approach (25 minutes) C. brainstorm some ideas (10 minutes) C. brainstorm some ideas (10 minutes) Part II – developing an implementation plan Part II – developing an implementation plan

8 Integrating Laboratory and Lecture Part Ia: learning about learning There are many strategies for teaching, how do they relate one to the other and how do they relate to “integrating concepts and practice (lab and lecture)?” Activity No. 1 (5 minutes) – Work in teams of two to form a diagram that illustrates the relationship between as many “teaching strategies” as you can think of.

9 Why integrated learning? “In traditional… teaching, teachers expect the … student to implicitly learn and apply subtle concepts… connect… disjointed information… assemble the building blocks of critical thinking,… without example (Meyers 1986)… [Teachers] don’t… demonstrate… the framework or perspective for critical thinking…,” Jones-Wilson (2005) “In traditional… teaching, teachers expect the … student to implicitly learn and apply subtle concepts… connect… disjointed information… assemble the building blocks of critical thinking,… without example (Meyers 1986)… [Teachers] don’t… demonstrate… the framework or perspective for critical thinking…,” Jones-Wilson (2005) “… comprehension is an active… process… in order to comprehend… [the student] must merge… knowledge they already own, with… new information…,” Mitchell (2006) “… comprehension is an active… process… in order to comprehend… [the student] must merge… knowledge they already own, with… new information…,” Mitchell (2006) Students who actively engage… the material are more likely to recall information later and be able to use that information in different contexts, Bruner (1961) cited by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning Students who actively engage… the material are more likely to recall information later and be able to use that information in different contexts, Bruner (1961) cited by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning

10 Learning Theories Active Learning: student engaged in other than passive modes Active Learning: student engaged in other than passive modes Active Learning Active Learning Cooperative Learning: student at different skill competencies work in teams to facilitate learning Cooperative Learning: student at different skill competencies work in teams to facilitate learning Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning Multiple Intelligences: a theory that says that individuals have different talents that we need to teach to Multiple Intelligences: a theory that says that individuals have different talents that we need to teach to Multiple Intelligences Multiple Intelligences Problem-Based Learning (PBL): driven by challenging, open-ended problems, students work in small collaborative groups, teachers take on the role of “facilitator” Problem-Based Learning (PBL): driven by challenging, open-ended problems, students work in small collaborative groups, teachers take on the role of “facilitator” Problem-Based Learning Problem-Based Learning Self-Regulated Learning: the student sets the learning pace Self-Regulated Learning: the student sets the learning pace Self-Regulated Learning Self-Regulated Learning R. Carducci, The Application of Learning Theories in Community College Classrooms, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 30 (3) 279-285 (Mar 2006).

11 Other Terminology Collaborative Learning: “ …refers to those classroom strategies which have the instructor and the students placed on an equal footing working together… designing assignments, choosing texts, and presenting material…,” Paulston and Faust, http://www.calstatela.edu/dept/chem/chem2/Active/ Collaborative Learning: “ …refers to those classroom strategies which have the instructor and the students placed on an equal footing working together… designing assignments, choosing texts, and presenting material…,” Paulston and Faust, http://www.calstatela.edu/dept/chem/chem2/Active/ http://www.calstatela.edu/dept/chem/chem2/Active/ Inquiry (Discovery)-Based Learning: characterized by asking a question, designing an approach to obtain an answer, implementing that approach, analyzing the results and communicating the outcomes Inquiry (Discovery)-Based Learning: characterized by asking a question, designing an approach to obtain an answer, implementing that approach, analyzing the results and communicating the outcomes InquiryDiscovery InquiryDiscovery High Performance Learning Environment*: a student-centered learning concept High Performance Learning Environment*: a student-centered learning concept High Performance Learning Environment High Performance Learning Environment Integrated Learning Environments (ILE): in the ILE, theory and experimentation form a continuum. Lecture and laboratory are replaced by a single learning experience wherein questions are answered by whatever means is necessary, e.g. learning takes place using whatever modality works best Integrated Learning Environments (ILE): in the ILE, theory and experimentation form a continuum. Lecture and laboratory are replaced by a single learning experience wherein questions are answered by whatever means is necessary, e.g. learning takes place using whatever modality works best * P. Arce and L. Schreiber, “High Performance Learning Environments, Hi-PeLE,” Chem. Eng. Ed., 38 (4) 286-291 (Fall 2004).

12 PBL as a Global Strategy ““How can I get my students to think?" is a question asked by many faculty, regardless of their disciplines. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional method that challenges students to "learn to learn," working cooperatively in groups to seek solutions to real world problems. These problems are used to engage students' curiosity and initiate learning the subject matter. PBL prepares students to think critically and analytically, and to find and use appropriate learning resources.” Duch http://www.udel.edu/pbl/ ““How can I get my students to think?" is a question asked by many faculty, regardless of their disciplines. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional method that challenges students to "learn to learn," working cooperatively in groups to seek solutions to real world problems. These problems are used to engage students' curiosity and initiate learning the subject matter. PBL prepares students to think critically and analytically, and to find and use appropriate learning resources.” Duch http://www.udel.edu/pbl/ http://www.udel.edu/pbl/

13 Says who? “The use of in-class activities to promote… learning… has become more prevalent… [yet] lectures and laboratories are still… separate…,” Aviles. “The use of in-class activities to promote… learning… has become more prevalent… [yet] lectures and laboratories are still… separate…,” Aviles. “[In] an active learning environment… student[s] … seek out new experiences, interpret them, and relate them to previous experiences… allow[ing]… independent thinking, problem solving and guided discovery…,” Coelho (2005) “[In] an active learning environment… student[s] … seek out new experiences, interpret them, and relate them to previous experiences… allow[ing]… independent thinking, problem solving and guided discovery…,” Coelho (2005) “Critical thinking is… seen as a universal goal of higher education… student engagement in active learning… appeared to increase critical thinking...,” Burbach, Matkin and Fritz (2004) “Critical thinking is… seen as a universal goal of higher education… student engagement in active learning… appeared to increase critical thinking...,” Burbach, Matkin and Fritz (2004)

14 Who’s doing what? Integration of Lecture, Laboratory and Hands- On Activities in an Introductory Severe Weather Course…, Aviles Integration of Lecture, Laboratory and Hands- On Activities in an Introductory Severe Weather Course…, Aviles An Integrated Approach to Geologic Writing…, Beiersdorfer and Haynes (1991) An Integrated Approach to Geologic Writing…, Beiersdorfer and Haynes (1991) … Critical Thinking in [a] Leadership Course Utilizing Active Learning…, Burbach, Matkin and Fritz (2004) … Critical Thinking in [a] Leadership Course Utilizing Active Learning…, Burbach, Matkin and Fritz (2004) An Integrated Lecture-Laboratory… for General Chemistry, Bailey, Kingsbury and Kulinowski (2000) An Integrated Lecture-Laboratory… for General Chemistry, Bailey, Kingsbury and Kulinowski (2000)

15 Integrating Laboratory and Lecture Part Ib: demonstrate my approach Unfortunately, students are unable to connect theory and practice when presented with real-world open-ended problems. Students tend to identify “laboratory” with a distasteful nuisance requirement… “I get one credit hour for doing three credits of work… *&#%^@#....“ and to identity “laboratory” as a specific type of place rather than with the practice of their discipline. Students think that a “class” is a place they go to get lectured to.

16 The Traditional Pedagogy Compartmentalized Lecture and Lab Classroom is theory taught using lecture Classroom is theory taught using lecture Laboratory is laboratory taught using laboratory exercises from laboratory manuals Laboratory is laboratory taught using laboratory exercises from laboratory manuals Compartmentalized instruction leads to disconnects in student thinking and inability to relate concepts (theory) and practice (application).

17 When presented with… … a real-world open ended problem, from among a group of students comprising five individual teams, not a single team approached the problem in a way that would demonstrate connectivity between theory and observations. These student were nurtured in a compartmentalized learning environment.

18 In my class… … “laboratory” is a bad word and class means “a learning event or series of learning events.” … there is theory, computation and observation, these form a continuous way of understanding the real world.

19 In my class… … “observation” must replace “laboratory” in the vocabulary of the student. … “laboratory” must become any environment wherein an “observation” can be made. … a “class” is an event wherein the students learn something. … I am the expert, but my job is as coach.

20 How I Make it Work I’ve moved my classroom into a laboratory which I prefer to call an “integrated learning environment (ILE).” I’ve moved my classroom into a laboratory which I prefer to call an “integrated learning environment (ILE).” My ILE is nothing fancy, it has a board and portable multi-media with wireless. My ILE is nothing fancy, it has a board and portable multi-media with wireless. My ILE has configurable tables rather than desks! Students need to work comfortably, face-to-face. My ILE has configurable tables rather than desks! Students need to work comfortably, face-to-face. My ILE has a workspace for study of theory and a laboratory space for making observations. My ILE has a workspace for study of theory and a laboratory space for making observations. Get Rid of the “Classroom” and Create an Integrated Learning Environment Instead

21 CHE 2011 CHE 2011 – Chemical Engineering Analysis CHE 2011 CHE 2011 is a sophomore-level CHE requirement (core) course, 3+1 cr hr CHE 2011 is a sophomore-level CHE requirement (core) course, 3+1 cr hr I work with about 20 students I work with about 20 students The material is mathematical, conceptual and challenging The material is mathematical, conceptual and challenging While debatable, most would say, “the curriculum builds upon this one course” While debatable, most would say, “the curriculum builds upon this one course”

22 Integrating Theory, Computation and Observation some examples from CHE 2011 Theory Computation Observation Unit ConversionsUsing Matrixes Measuring Flowrate Mass Conservation: Single Component SystemsSurface IntegrationEfflux Through an Orifice Single Component SystemsSurface IntegrationEfflux Through an Orifice Volume IntegrationFilling and Draining Tanks Differential EquationsCapillary Rise (Flow) Multi Component Systems Multi Component Systems Reacting SystemsSystem of Equations Reacting SystemsSystem of Equations Linear Algebra Complex Matrix Algebra Team Skills Learning to Learn

23 Integrating Soft Skills workshop activities * Teamwork Teamwork Teamwork Importance of the team Importance of the team The “Functional Resume” The “Functional Resume” Selection of Team Members Selection of Team Members Learning to Learn Learning to Learn Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Bloom’s Taxonomy (see also) Bloom’s Taxonomy (see also) Bloom’s Taxonomysee also Bloom’s Taxonomysee also Lifelong Learning Lifelong Learning * Lead by Dr. P. Arce.

24 Observation outline a real world experience What shouldn’t you do (for the student)? What shouldn’t you do (for the student)? What should you do (for the student)? What should you do (for the student)? What should the student do? What should the student do? Activity No. 2 (5 minutes) – Work in teams of two to form an outline for a real world student experience. Your “dos” and “don’ts” lists are to be generic and applicable for any discipline.

25 Observations like in the real world What I Do Not Do × Use Lab Manual or Worksheets × Provide Detailed Procedures of Any Sort × Require Elaborate Reports What I Do Provide a Challenge (I might not even do this.) Provide a Challenge (I might not even do this.) Guide Student Inquiry (Coach) Guide Student Inquiry (Coach) What Students Do Formulate Questions Formulate Questions Write Procedures Write Procedures Implement Experiments Implement Experiments Develop an Analysis Methodology Develop an Analysis Methodology Draw Conclusions Draw Conclusions Report the Outcomes (oral and written) Report the Outcomes (oral and written)

26 Integrating Laboratory and Lecture Part Ic: brainstorming ideas Activity No. 3 (10 minutes) – Work independently for a few minutes thinking about the coure(s) you teach and how you might transform your “classroom” or “laboratory” into an “integrated learning environment.” Share your thoughts with the group and take suggestions from your peers.

27 Integrating Laboratory and Lecture Part II: developing a plan for implementation “The key to developing an active learning approach is to not only plan for effective teaching but to design for learning.” Coelho (2005)

28 What is my job? To catalyze your thinking about transitioning to a teaching mode wherein concepts and practice form a continuum. To catalyze your thinking about transitioning to a teaching mode wherein concepts and practice form a continuum. To facilitate you in transforming your classroom or laboratory into an Integrated Learning Environment wherein students learn to view real-world outcomes as the result of processes + that have conceptual * descriptions. To facilitate you in transforming your classroom or laboratory into an Integrated Learning Environment wherein students learn to view real-world outcomes as the result of processes + that have conceptual * descriptions. To model the use of an active learning environment during this workshop. To model the use of an active learning environment during this workshop. + For the physical science, “processes” implies “physical processes.” * For the mathematics-based sciences “conceptual” implies “mathematical.”

29 Creating an Integrated Learning Environment Inquiry-based Inquiry-based Student-centered learning Student-centered learning Instructor is a coach not the locus of knowledge Instructor is a coach not the locus of knowledge Students take responsibility for their learning Students take responsibility for their learning Lecture is minimized or eliminated Lecture is minimized or eliminated The learning experience utilizes any suitable modality, e.g. there is no boundary between the classroom, laboratory, simulation, experiment, … The learning experience utilizes any suitable modality, e.g. there is no boundary between the classroom, laboratory, simulation, experiment, …

30 Key Elements of the Integration Process Active Environment Active Environment Multiple Learning Modalities as Necessary Multiple Learning Modalities as Necessary Team Work and Team Instruction Team Work and Team Instruction Learning About Learning Instruction Learning About Learning Instruction Accessing the Needed Physical Infrastructure or Resources Accessing the Needed Physical Infrastructure or Resources

31 Integrated Learning vs. Lecture with Lab In integrated learning, theory and experimentation form a continuum. Lecture and laboratory are replaced by a single learning experience wherein questions are answered by whatever means is necessary learning takes place using whatever modality works best. In integrated learning, theory and experimentation form a continuum. Lecture and laboratory are replaced by a single learning experience wherein questions are answered by whatever means is necessary learning takes place using whatever modality works best.

32 Now Build Your Own Integrated Learning Environment Activity No. 4 (20 minutes) – Take your best ideas form the “brainstorming” session and put some detail around them. Build a plan for implementation for one of your lecture-based or laboratory-based courses. Write a 150 word abstract that describes your proposed initiative. Be prepared to share your abstract with the class. Also, develop a one page outline that you can display for the class. Computers are available for your use.

33 Integrating Across the Curriculum CHE 2010 Analysis (3) CHE 2010 Analysis (3) Macroscopic Mass and Energy Bal Macroscopic Mass and Energy Bal CHE 2210 Lab I (1) CHE 2210 Lab I (1) Safety Safety Propagation of Error Propagation of Error Data Collection Data Collection Viscosity Viscosity CHE 3020 Thermo II (3) CHE 3020 Thermo II (3) CHE 3110 Trans Sci I (4) CHE 3110 Trans Sci I (4) CHE 3120 Trans Sci II (3) CHE 3120 Trans Sci II (3) CHE 3220 Lab II (2) CHE 3220 Lab II (2) Heat and Momentum Transfer Heat and Momentum Transfer CHE 4130 Trans Sci II (3) CHE 4130 Trans Sci II (3) CHE 4210 Reactions (3) CHE 4210 Reactions (3) CHE 4230 Lab III (1) CHE 4230 Lab III (1) Unit Ops I – Separations Unit Ops I – Separations CHE 4240 Lab IV (1) CHE 4240 Lab IV (1) Unit Ops II – Open Ended Unit Ops II – Open Ended CHE 2011 Analysis (4) CHE 2011 Analysis (4) Macroscopic Mass Bal Macroscopic Mass Bal CHE 3020 Thermo II (4) CHE 3020 Thermo II (4) CHE 3111 Rad and Diffusive Trans (4) CHE 3111 Rad and Diffusive Trans (4) CHE 3121 Fluid Dynamics (4) CHE 3121 Fluid Dynamics (4) CHE 4130 Multi-Physic Trans (4) CHE 4130 Multi-Physic Trans (4) CHE 4210 Reactions (4) CHE 4210 Reactions (4) CHE 4240 Capstone Lab (1) CHE 4240 Capstone Lab (1) Open Ended Synthesis Experience Open Ended Synthesis Experience ?


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