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Endoderm and primary induction. Human.

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Presentation on theme: "Endoderm and primary induction. Human."— Presentation transcript:

1 Endoderm and primary induction

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10 Human

11 Figure 11.32(1) Tissue Formation in the Human Embryo Between Days 7 and 11

12 Figure 11.32(2) Tissue Formation in the Human Embryo Between Days 7 and 11

13 Figure 11.33(1) Amnion Structure and Cell Movements During Human Gastrulation Human

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16 Figure 1.6 Fate Maps of Different Vertebrate Classes at the Early Gastrula Stage

17 Figure 1.5 The Similarities and Differences among Different Vertebrate Embryos

18 START PRIMARY ORGANIZER LECTURE FROM HERE

19 Terms (definitions) for Establishment of cells and tissues (here use lens cells as an example) Competence, wherein cells can become lens precursors if they are exposed to the appropriate combination of signals. Specification, wherein cells have received the appropriate signals to become lens precursors, but progression along the pathway to lens can still be repressed by other signals. Commmitment (determination), wherein lens precursors have entered a differentiation pathway, and will become lens even in the presence of inhibitory signals. Differentiation, wherein the lens cells leave the mitotic cycle and express those genes characteristic of their cell type.

20 Early dpp/BMP gradients dictate the D/V axis of the entire embryo

21 Figure Homologous Pathways Specifying Neural Ectoderm in Protostomes (Drosophila) and Deuterostomes (Xenopus) D/V Early dpp/BMP gradients dictate the D/V axis of the entire embryo

22 Later cases of dpp/BMP expression direct specific embryonic tissue inductions

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24 Sea Urchin Nodal BMP-2/ BMP-4 Later cases of dpp/BMP expression direct specific embryonic tissue inductions

25 Figure 3.14 Roux’s Attempt to Demonstrate Mosaic Development Wilhelm Roux, 1888

26 Figure 3.11 Conditional Specification

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28 Two critical inductions: Formation of the primary organizer Action of the primary organizer

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33 Neurulation is induced(By the ‘primary organizer’)

34 -1. The primary organizer induces neurulation and axis formation -2. The primary organizer itself arises from a previous induction

35 -1. The primary organizer induces neurulation and axis formation -The dorsal lip of the blastopore contains the primary organizer

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38 Figure 10.21(1) Organization of a Secondary Axis by Dorsal Blastopore Lip Tissue -1. The primary organizer induces neurulation and axis formation

39 Figure 10.21(1) Organization of a Secondary Axis by Dorsal Blastopore Lip Tissue -1. The primary organizer induces neurulation and axis formation

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41 Amphibian

42 Source of primary organizer shown on fate map -1. The primary organizer induces neurulation and axis formation

43 -The primary organizer induces neurulation and axis formation -The primary organizer itself arises from a previous induction

44 OR... where does the ‘primary organizer’ come from? -The primary organizer itself arises from a previous induction

45 Contains the Nieuwkoop center Experiment at the 32-cell stage

46 -The primary organizer itself arises from a previous induction The primary organizer is induced by the Nieuwkoop center (a tissue with an endodermal fate)

47 The primary organizer arises due to an induction from the Nieuwkoop center How does the Nieuwkoop center arise? Spemann, baby’s hair ligature

48 The primary organizer arises due to an induction from the Nieuwkoop center How does the Nieuwkoop center arise?

49 The primary organizer arises due to an induction from the Nieuwkoop center How does the Nieuwkoop center arise?

50 The primary organizer arises due to an induction from the Nieuwkoop center How does the Nieuwkoop center arise?

51 The primary organizer arises due to an induction from the Nieuwkoop center How does the Nieuwkoop center arise?

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55 Contains the Nieuwkoop center

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59 Figure Formation of the Nieuwkoop Center in Frogs And Chicks

60 Figure Formation of Hensen’s Node From Koller’s Sickle

61 Figure 11.20(1) Induction of a New Embryo by Transplantation of Hensen’s Node THE ORGANIZER IS IN THE HENSEN’S NODE

62 Mammal

63 Figure 11.7 Convergence and Extension in the Zebrafish Gastrula Zebrafish

64 Figure 11.8 The Embryonic Shield as Organizer in the Fish Embryo Zebrafish

65 Figure 1.6 Fate Maps of Different Vertebrate Classes at the Early Gastrula Stage All have homologous organizers

66 Figure 1.5 The Similarities and Differences among Different Vertebrate Embryos


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