2Agenda 05/04/2012 Bell Work Understanding the Holocaust Presentation Fighting WWII-Annotated Maps (Chapter 36)Last class we looked at Japanese Internment, this class we will look at the holocaust and how WWII was fought, next class we will consider the decision to drop the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These stories are key to our evaluation of WWII and how the war changed the world.
3Bell Work!Last time we were together we looked at Japanese internment. Today we are turning our focus to how WWII was fought. A large part of the WWII story was the discovery of concentration and death camps throughout Nazi controlled Europe. At what point do you think it becomes the responsibility of the international community to address abuses being committed in other countries? In other words, does the US or another country have a moral obligation to protect the rights of citizens throughout the world?
4What do you see in this picture What do you see in this picture? What words would you use to describe what is going on? How do you think she feels about the health of the government? Economy?
5By 1923 it took 1,000,000,000 marks to equal $1 US! German Pride SuffersLosing WWI and having to accept the harsh terms of Versailles was a blow to German national pride.Germany had lost large tracts of land, all of her colonies, the right to a defensive army, and they had to accept responsibility for the war.Additionally, Germany had to pay the Allies reparations to the tune of 32 billion dollars.To pay their debt, the government printed and borrowed money causing hyperinflationBy 1923 it took 1,000,000,000 marks to equal $1 US!
6What is his expression. What symbols do you see What is his expression? What symbols do you see? Does he look more like a politician or a military official? Why do you think he is projecting this image?
7Born 1889 to a customs official Hitler’s early yearsBorn 1889 to a customs officialHe strived to become an artist and a poet, but was unsuccessfulDropped out of school at 16 having reached the 8th gradeHad a strained relationship with his fatherWas close with his motherWhen his mother died in 1907 of cancer, Hitler blamed her Jewish doctorHe served in the German army in WWI, he was not an exceptional soldier, but came to recognize the power of military as a tool to change Germany’s fortunes.
8Who do you think these people are Who do you think these people are? If these were US gov leaders, how would this pic be different? Why do you think hitler chose these men for high positions? Why do you think they served hitler?
9While in jail, Hitler writes Mein Kompf (Lebensraum) Hitler rises to power1919 joins Nazi Party1923 Beer Hall PutschWhile in jail, Hitler writes Mein Kompf (Lebensraum)When he is released, he begins to rebuild the Nazi Party to work within the frame of government (no more revolution)1932 the Nazi Party wins elections and Hitler becomes chancellorHe begins to consolidate power (propaganda, Gestapo)August 1934, president Hindenburg dies and Hitler immediately consolidates the presidency and the chancellor into one position with himself filling the role (der Füher)
10What do you see here. What do they all have in common What do you see here? What do they all have in common? What is the young boy wearing? Why do you think he has on a uniform? What purpose does this poster serve?
11Nazi ideology permeates germen society “Follow me with your hearts, not your minds.”The Nazis skillfully used propaganda to play on existing hatred of Jews and spread Hitler’s political message.Even board games and toys would come with messages about how to use them to serve the fatherland (bicycles for military reconnaissance)
12Targeting German Youth Children 6-10 were expected to join Pimpf or little fellowThey kept records of their physical and military abilities.After Pimpf was Jungvolk then the Hitler YouthThe goal of these organization was to ensure loyalty to the Nazi philosophy.“All education must have the sole objective of stamping conviction into the child that his own people and his own race are superior to others.”Heil Hitler times a dayEvery class was militaristic
13What are the hands doing. What emotion do they express What are the hands doing? What emotion do they express? What is the scene under the face? Why is the face over the scene? How do you think Germans responded to this message“the jew: he instigates war, he extends war”
14Jews are isolated and attacked What began with “boycott day” in 1933 grew in to much larger scale attacks on the Jewish community.Nuremberg Laws : a set of over 2,000 anti-Jewish laws. At first they limited the type of work that Jews that could do, but they gradually grew more harsh so as to exclude Jews from property rights and even citizenship.They also passed laws that required Jews to identify themselves by wearing a yellow Star of DavidOppressing Jews to purify German society and using them as scapegoats gave “good” Germans purpose and solidarity under Nazi ruleescalation
15KristallnachtWhat do you see here? What happened? Where were the police when this happened?
16Attacks on Jews escalate Kristallnacht: Nov. 10, 1938 “The Night of Broken Glass”The savage and carefully orchestrated attack by thousands SS storm troopers and non-Jewish sympathizers went on an anti-Jewish rampageIn 15 hours the hoards:destroyed 200 synagogueslooted 7,500 Jewish storeskilled 100 Jews30,000 Jews were arrested and interned in prison campsTo add to the horror, the Jewish community was fined 1 billion marks to repair the damage caused by the hoardsGerman Jews began to flee for safety
17Who are these people. What are they carrying Who are these people? What are they carrying? What do their expressions tell you? What are the expressions of the guards? Where do you think they are going?
18Jews are forced into ghettos, then camps Throughout the 1930s, Jews were pushed into walled off portions of cities called ghettos.Many arrived with no positions and lived in a constant state of fear and anxiety as executions were common and arbitraryAs Germany conquered eastern Europe, Jews were relocated to new ghettos that were meant to be holding areas until the “final solution” could be executed.Resistance movements grew in these camps, but were often crushed with little concern for lives lost
19Warsaw Ghetto uprising January 1943 a revolt broke out in the Warsaw ghetto that 70,000 Jews had been imprisoned in.Fighting lasted five months. At first they were able to drive the Germans out, but as they ran out of ammo and had to turn to other weapons, the Nazis came back with a vengeance.At the end of the fighting 56,000 Jews had been murdered and only 9 Nazi were killed.Jewish Fighters Organization
20How many people do you see in this picture. How do they look How many people do you see in this picture? How do they look? Do you think they own any belongings? Like what? What do you think happened to these men?
21The horrors of concentration camps Nazis began building concentration camps shortly after coming to power, but Jews were not sent to them in large numbers until after the KristallnachtThe camps were key to Hitler’s efforts to control and terrorize the population of Europe.Being sent to the camps was a death sentence; you were worked to death, starved, or just murderedThe “Angel of Death” conducted inhumane medical experiments on twins and GypsiesJosef mengele- the angel of death
22Concentration CampsIf you were unfortunate enough to survive transportation to a concentration camp, there were two possibilities for you 1) be worked to death if you were healthy enough or 2) be killed immediately if you were too old, young, or weak to workSS officers would confiscate everything including gold fillings and hairThose selected to work, usually were only able to for three months before they were too weak and were executed
23What does this drawing show. Who is in the front What does this drawing show? Who is in the front? Why do you think there is a person on the ground? How might this drawing be an act of resistance?Prayer, poetry societies, art, working slow, anything to maintain morale
24What do you see here. What do you think is being burned What do you see here? What do you think is being burned? Why do you think bodies might have been burned? Why would Nazis want to hide the number of people they killed?
25Hitler often referred to a “final solution” to the “Jewish problem.” The “final solution”Hitler often referred to a “final solution” to the “Jewish problem.”To him the only way to purify and restore Germany’s power and greatness included the extermination of all Jewish people.In 1941, the Nazis began mass shootings of as many as 500 at a time and left the bodies in mass gravesStriving for efficiency and desiring to hide the numbers being killed, Hitler began building death camps in 1942Like concentration camps, there were two lines: one for being worked for death and one for execution.
26The “final solution”Jews were lead into a “bathhouse” where they thought they were being deloused, instead they would be gassed with Cyclon B and then the bodies were cremated to hide the numbers of the dead.The SS went to great lengths to hide the inevitable from their victims. They even went as far as issuing bars of soap to victimsThe Auschwitz gas chamber could hold as many as 3,000 victims at a timeAfter the bodies were burned, the ashes would be spread over a large area to ensure that no one could determine the number of deaths
27In the end it is estimated that from 1942 to 1945 : 6,000,000 Jews were murderedand 4-6,000,0000 gypsies, homosexuals, and handicapped people were executed
28What do you see here? Who are these people? Where do you think they are? What does it mean when a survivor of concentration says he was born in 1945
29Liberation!Allied forces and the world were shocked by what they were seeing at the death camps.No one had predicted the scope and magnitude of Hitler’s “final solution”To hold the Nazi accountable and to establish a formal record of their atrocities, the Allies held the famous Nuremburg trials.22 were tried12 sentenced to death3 to life in prison4 to lesser termsand 3 acquitted
30Each map should be glued onto its own page in your notebook. Annotated MapsNext we will take a look at how WWII was fought so that we can consider all that we have learned so far in context.For each section of chapter 36 there is a map that you will work to invest with the most salient information from the text.Each map should be glued onto its own page in your notebook.Refer to the handout for information on what to include on each map.You should have plenty of time to complete the maps and you will be rewarded for complete maps at the end of class with a stamp.