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2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 The Atmosphere - global warming L2 English in Natural Science 自然科学の英語.

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Presentation on theme: "2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 The Atmosphere - global warming L2 English in Natural Science 自然科学の英語."— Presentation transcript:

1 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 The Atmosphere - global warming L2 English in Natural Science 自然科学の英語

2 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2

3 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Vertical structure Density decreases with altitude –gravitational force Layers of different composition –Homosphere (90 km) –Heterosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere 90 km 48 km 12 km Heterosphere Homosphere Ozone layer Mass < 1% 14% 85%

4 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Ozone layer Filter (15-40 km) against UV solar radiation 90% ozone [O 3 ] 2-8 ppm Destruction by CFC: CFCl 3 + hv  CFCl 3 + Cl O 3 + Cl  O 2 + ClO Effects 1. Increased UV radiation  DNA damage (mutations, cancer) 2. Less absorption of radiation  Air cooling

5 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Current composition –N 2 (78.08%) –O 2 (20.95%) –Ar (0.93%) –CO 2 (0.035%) –Other (0.005%) Ne, He, CH 4, Kr, NO 2 -, H, Xe, O 3 Temperature decreases with altitude –average 1 o C for 100 m surface ~15 o C  1,500 m water condensates –Clouds form between m Troposphere

6 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Evolution of atmosphere 95% N 2 3.5% CO 2 <1% O 2 78% N 2 21% O 2 <1% CO 2

7 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Atmosphere is dynamic Solar powered Convection –Hot air UP –Cold air DOWN Circulation routes –west  east –tropics  poles Jet streams Effects: –Mixing of gasses –Temperature buffer

8 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Coriolis effect Rotation of the Earth –Air moves inward in circles  cyclons –Inertial circles C Centrifugal force Tropical cyclon 台風 typhoon hurricane

9 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Hydrological cycle Energy  Sun Water on Earth Oceans (97%) –Salty water Atmosphere –Evaporation (H 2 O vapour) –Condensation (cloud) –Precipitation (rain) Land –Snow  icecaps  water –Runoff  rivers Dissolves materials Erosion of land –Evapotranspiration (plants) Evapotranspiration

10 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 The Blue Planet

11 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Hydrosphere - water distribution LocationVolume (km3)Percentage Oceans1,322,000, Icecaps + glaciers29,200, Water on land8,630, World total1,360,000, Ground water 8,400, Freshwater lakes 125, Saline lakes/seas 104, Soil moisture 67, Atmosphere 13, Rivers 1,

12 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Interaction atmosphere - hydrosphere Solar radiation –Water evaporation (oceans)  condensation (clouds) –Hot air UP and cold air DOWN Earth’s rotation –Air + clouds move in inertial circles (cyclons) Earth’s topography (e.g. mountains) –Distort movement of cyclons –Cause precipitation (rain) –Region  different weather pattern CLIMATE

13 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Climate patterns Koeppen System 1st level: latitude zone Tropical Subtropical Temperate Polar Mountain/highland 2nd level: precipitation Regular throughout year Dry winter Dry summer 3rd level: temperature Hot Mild Cool Cold

14 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Af: Tropical Rainforest Aw: Tropical Wet & Dry (Savanna) BSh: Tropical Steppe BWh: Tropical Desert BSk & BWk: Midlatitude Steppe & Desert Cs: Mediterranean (dry summer subtropical) Cfa: Humid Subtropical CFb: Marine West Coast Df & Dw: Humid Continental & Subarctic ET: Tundra Highland

15 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Climate change: Causes Weather changes - short term cycles –Sun spots fluctuations (11 yr period) –Sea-temperature currents (El Niño oscillations) Climate changes - long-term oscillations –Solar radiation (insolation) Precession of equinoxes (23,000 yr period) Tilt (1 o ) of Earth’s rotational axis (41,000 yr period) Eccentricity cycle (100,000 and 400,000 yr period) Milankovitch cycles –Carbon dioxide and methane in atmosphere Biomass amount and distribution

16 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Climate indicators 18 O  ice-sheet thickness  sea level 13 C  biomass (productivity) CO 2  atmospheric temperature  carbonate deposition/dissolution CH 4  wetland expansion/reduction  monsoonal precipitation

17 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Weather cycles Southern Oscillation Index (El Niño) cold  dryness warm  rainfall Humdbolt Current Temperature cycles 11 x 2 yr period

18 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Orbit eccentricity Axial tilt Astronomic variations  insolation Precession Polaris Vega

19 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Holocene (10,000 yr) Insolation –perihelion from July to January –8% more insolation summer and less in winter NH Effects –Global ice-volume decreased ( 18 O from 15,000 to 6,000 yr) –Sea-surface temperature up (8 o C Atlantic winter) –Sea level up (100 m) CO 2 increased –200 ppm (15,000 yr)  250 ppm (6,000 yr)

20 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2

21 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Pleistocene (175,000 yr) Insolation –superimposition 23, 41 and 100 year cycles Effects –Ice-sheet ( 18 O) –Sea-level –CO 2 –methane –Monsoon (SE Asia)

22 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2

23 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Quaternary (3 million yr) Directly related to insolation cycles Patterns of variation –Several ice-age periods –Cooling trend in last 700,000 yr –Changes in biomass (productivity) –Irreversible variations due to continental drift Mountain uplift regulate the magnitude of monsoonal oscillations

24 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 (Webb and Bartlein, 1992)

25 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Greenhouse gasses Transparent to incoming solar radiation Absorb outgoing infrared radiation ( > 0.78  m) emitted by Earth (surface + atmosphere) CFC Radiative forcing W/m 2 relative CO CH NO CFC CO 2 +36% CH % NO 2 +20%

26 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and temperature Antarctica Vostok lake (160,000 yr) What causes CO 2 cycles? (Barnola et al., 1987)

27 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Keeling curve Current CO 2 in atmosphere Atmospheric CO 2 –Initially (3.5 bya) 100 x –Reduction… Biomass Carbonate deposition –Now 300 Gt (x10 9 tons) Upward trend Sources –98% natural Biological Volcanic eruptions –2% human activities Before ppm ppm ppm Total increase+36% Current rate 1.8 ppm/yr

28 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Human impact on the carbon cycle Sources of CO Gt/year (1995) –Emissions (83%) Fossil fuels (CO 2, CH 4 ) 6.5 Gt Fertilizers (NO 2 ) Gt –Deforestation(17%) 0.4 m Km 2 /year 36,000 Km 2 Amazon

29 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Carbon balance 44%36%20%

30 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Effects: global warming Average air temperature increased I) 0.7 o C in 30 yr ii) 2003 heat wave in Europe 94 mt harvest lost (5% world grain)

31 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Effects in the ocean… …start to be felt. Sea levels in Gulf of Mexico Wild weather –Katrina, Rita –Japan 2004 (11 typhoons)

32 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Global climatic impact of CO 2 Global warming [CO 2 ] UP  Temperature UP Temperature –Air: more H 2 O vapour  rainfall increase pressure  wild weather (typhoon) –Water: melting icecaps  increase sea levels [CO 2 ] –Air: photosynthesis UP  more plant biomass –Water:dissolved CO 3 -2  coral and marine plankton Ice-age[CO 2 ] DOWN  Temperature DOWN –Air:less H 2 O vapour  rainfall decrease dryness  dust UP  less radiation (cooling) –Water:icecaps increase  decrease sea levels

33 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 Alternating warm/cold cycles Warm periods [CO 3 CaMg] [CO 2 ] [CO 3 -2 ] Ice Temp Vegetation dissolve [HCO 3 - ] Iceage Vegetation [CO 3 CaMg] [CO 3 -2 ] Ice [CO 2 ] Temp precipitate [HCO 3 - ]

34 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L2 References Schneider, S. H The greenhouse effect: Science and policy. Science 243: Webb III, T. and Bartlein, P.J Global changes during the last 3 million years: Climatic controls and biotic responses. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 23: Wuebbles, D.J. and Jain, A.K Concerns about climate change and the role of fossil fuel use. Fuel Proces. Technol. 71: Feely R.A. et al Impact of anthropogenic CO 2 on the CaCO 3 system in the oceans. Science 305:


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