Presentation on theme: "Oral and Silent Reading Christina DePauw Cassie Fredendall Kristina Fulgham May 6, 2006."— Presentation transcript:
Oral and Silent Reading Christina DePauw Cassie Fredendall Kristina Fulgham May 6, 2006
A History of Reading 1600s – As soon as possible after a child could speak, he learned to read using the ABC’s and the primer. 1825 – Lyman Cobb compiled the first graded reader series; the focus was elocution. Late 1800s – Educators became alarmed with the regimentation of instruction, rote recitation, and non-thinking oral reading. 1900s – The beginning of the Silent Reading Movement; shift from elocution to phonics. 1920s – The Radio Era gradually put an end to the oral reading of lessons at home, so responsibility for teaching reading was placed on the schools. 1950s – The supplementary reader idea of the 1920s gave way to the co- and tribasal idea. from Directing Reading Maturity as a Cognitive Process, pgs. 362-368.
Reading in the Classroom Children need opportunities to read both orally and silently in the classroom or it will impede progress. Before 3 rd grade, students comprehend better when reading orally. After that, comprehension lies in silent reading, whereas oral reading focuses more on building vocalization and pronunciation skills. It is necessary to motivate the silent reading in the classroom, telling the students what to look for, what they will be expected to do, and what they will be expected to know after reading is completed. Studies show that poor readers are only given 1/3 of the opportunities to read in class as good readers. “During oral reading, better readers tend to be encouraged to figure out a word for themselves, while low achieving readers tend to be supplied the word too quickly by the teacher.” ( Reading Assessment for Diagnostic Prescriptive Teaching)
Silent Reading “The core of every lesson in intensive reading should be silent reading... It is during the silent reading that the student is really learning how to read.” – Eugene Jackson Security / Ownership / Trust Internalization Supports and helps with unknown words Reads like talking Personal satisfaction Only place where meaning and comprehension take place “During silent reading, children have the opportunity to control their own pace, review material, and formulate personal reactions” – Reading Assessment for Diagnostic Prescriptive Teaching
Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) RReading program with goal of developing lifelong readers KKindergarten – 12 th grade 110-30 min. of in-class recreational reading CChildren self-select books TTeacher drops everything and reads, too EEither individual classrooms or school-wide NNo interruptions allowed
Benefits of SSR Supplementing SSR Benefits of SSR Supplementing SSR Opportunity for students to develop book choice Builds students’ confidence in ability to work through reading trouble spots on their own Teacher models love for reading Feeling of community in classroom Studies show that students want to read more Parents report students asking for books to read at home Keeping logs/journals (SSW) Teacher modeling Weekly discussions about what has been read Small groups following reading Pairs of “reading friends”
The Oral Reading Strategy “A simple way to model the complex ‘inside the head’ processes that enable the reader to comprehend and think about text.” Four steps: 1. Teacher should prepare and pre-read the selection that will be used. 2. Teacher reads first few pages of the selection and pauses periodically to comment or ask simple questions. 3. Teacher reads more with less questions and comments. 4. Teacher tells the class to read the next portion silently, modeling the structure she has laid out for them.
The Purpose of Oral Reading To read aloud to an audience to hold their attention to learn rather than to find fault To read aloud to an audience something they have not heard before and to hold their attention is one of the high aims of oral reading... In audience circumstances other pupils cannot follow in a text. They become listeners. Audience attention is more likely to be focused on content rather than on word errors, and the situation is more likely to be one in which to learn rather than to find fault. from Directing Reading Maturity as a Cognitive Process, pg. 121.
Components of Oral Reading Accuracy : measures the student’s precision in orally presenting the words in the text. Rate : the speed at which the students read aloud. Fluency : a rating of the student’s ability to render an appropriately phrased and syntactically coherent delivery of the passage. from NAEP 2002 Special Study of Oral Reading, pg. 15.
Oral Reading Fluency Scale Level 4 Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author’s syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation. Level 3 Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some small groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present. Level 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three- or four-word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to larger context of sentence or passage. Level 1 Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two-word or three-word phrases may occur—but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax. Fluent Non-Fluent from NAEP 2002 Special Study of Oral Reading, pg. 40.
Testing Oral versus Silent Reading Comprehension IRI (Informal Reading Inventories) Graded reading passages from Form A to Form B are typically given to the student in alternating order for oral and then silent reading Rate of Reading and Flexibility Measure Words Per Minute (WPM) in each
What can parents do? Passion Obsession Abundance Delight History Talent Perseverance Arrogance Vision Faith Individuality Togetherness Grace Communion Jealousy Perspective Jennie Nash outlines the do’s and don’ts of a parents’ role in helping their child read in her book Raising a Reader.
101 Reasons to Read with your Child Encourages Bonding Bridges the Generation Gap Encourages Character Development Explains the Meaning of Success Builds Self-Confidence Teaches Responsibility Increases Sense of Worthiness Shows Family Support Encourages Self-Expression Develops Integrity Promotes Self-Respect Fosters Independence Instills a Sense of Mutual Respect Teaches Your Child How to Ask for Help Helps You to Better Understand Your Child Shares Adult Point-of-View with Child Explains How Reading Can be Instructional Becomes an Educational Tool Helps Raise Academic and Social Performance Looks at World History in Exciting New Ways Helps with Habits and Attitudes Identifies Interests and Nurtures Them Teaches Spirituality Through Examples Creates a Family Culture Creates Warm Family Memories Teaches How to Express Ideas Encourages a Variety of Reading Materials Nurtures You (as the Reader) Redefines Parenthood; Expanding the Parental Role Builds Special One-on-One Relationships Allows You to Become an Intellectual Role Model Allows for Better Understanding of Each Other Develops Critical Thinking Expands Knowledge and an Appreciation for the Arts Promotes Healthy Problem Solving Helps Face Fears of the Unknown Can Ease a Child’s Fears When a New Baby Joins the Family Reduces Overall Family Tension Teaches that Individual Differences are Okay Creates New Family Ties Strengthens Old Family Ties Curbs Inappropriate Emotions Teaches How to Share Emotional Space Explains Difficult Situations Examines Unfamiliar Ideas Establishes a Family Activity Encourages Laughing Together Encourages a Sense of Wonder Shares Wisdom
101 Reasons cont. Stretches the Attention Span and Memory Encourages Curiosity Enhances Listening Skills Encourages Literacy Encourages Educated Speech Gives Pre-Schoolers a Head Start Encourages Self-Expression Teaches Children to be Nurturing Parents Teaches How to Learn from Mistakes Introduces the Child to the Richly Textured Lives of Different People Stimulates the Imagination Creates Intellectual Challenges Stimulates a World View of Ethnic Diversity Exposes a Child to Current Affairs Develops an Appreciation of the Written Word Creates a Sense of Belonging Helps the Child Distinguish Between Fact and Fiction Helps Them Imagine Their “Impossible” Careers Teaches Family History Teaches How Career Choices are Made Increases Quality Time Together Teaches Teamwork Develops the Ability to Read Alone Helps Develop Decision-Making Skills Helps Understand Cultural Differences Teaches How to Focus Improves Homework Creates a Work Ethic Improves Writing Skills Improves Performance in School Increases Vocabulary Through Exposure to New Words Exposes Listener to Good Grammar Trains the Child in Proper Pronunciation (and Phonics) Increases Awareness of the Real World Improves Infant Motor Skills Can Help Build Long-Distance Relationships Instills a Love of Books Can Calm or Help a Child Go to Sleep Makes Vacations More Memorable By Knowing About the Destination Exposes a Child to New Information Encourages Good Judgment Helps Create a Positive Lifestyle Helps Children Mature Encourages Positive Attitudes Encourages Healthy Compromises Teaches the Meaning of Commitment Helps Prepare for Life’s Challenges Trains Children to Speak Clearly Teaches the Relationship Between Letters and Words Teaches the Appreciation of Life Teaches Tolerance Teaches Leadership
Can you believe that? 21.2 hours per week watching TV 1.9 hours per week reading On average, students spend 21.2 hours per week watching TV, but a mere 1.9 hours per week reading. (U.S. Department of Education Study of 25,000 eighth graders) half routinely read to Only half of infants and toddlers are routinely read to by their parents. (Carnegie Foundation Report) 43% live in poverty 17% food stamps 70% no job 43% of people with the lowest literacy skills live in poverty, 17% receive food stamps and 70% have no job or a part time job. (National Institute for Literacy in Washington,D.C.) 21-23% of the adult population can’t read well enough Forty-four million adults in the U.S. ( 21-23% of the adult population ) can’t read well enough to read a simple story to a child. (Association of American Publishers) Seven out of tencannot read Seven out of ten prisoners in this country cannot read. (Tom Harken’s Wake-Up Call Year 2000 Update)