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D aily G rammar P ractice A Grammar Program That Makes Sense.

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1 D aily G rammar P ractice A Grammar Program That Makes Sense

2 Why Grammar? Colleges and technical schools say that students aren’t prepared for the demands of academic writing.

3 Ezarik, M. (2003). Survey: K-12, higher ed grammar disconnect. (CurriculumUpdate: The latest developments in math, science, language arts and social studies). DistrictAdministration, 39(7), 46.

4 Why Grammar? Business leaders complain that employees can’t write grammatically correct documents. We expect students to edit for grammatical and mechanical errors, but they can’t apply what they don’t understand.

5 Why Grammar? In order to help students write better and write correctly, we must all share a common lingo, and that lingo is grammar.

6 lie rise sit intransitive

7 Why Grammar? A student who understands the nuts and bolts of a language can use that language more effectively. Students need to know grammar concepts for standardized tests such as exit exams and the SAT.

8 George Hillocks and Michael Smith (1991) argue that “the teaching of school grammar has little or no effect on students” and that grammar instruction wastes valuable time that could be better spent on writing instruction. Hillocks, G., Jr., & Smith, M. W. (1991). Grammar and usage. In J. Flood, J. M. Jensen, D. Lapp, & J. R. Squire (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts ( ). New York: Macmillan.

9 Why Daily Grammar Practice? Works like a daily grammar vitamin

10 The Vitamin Analogy Learning through grammar unit: taking a whole bottle of vitamins at once. Learning grammar in context or through daily correct-a-sentence: taking random vitamins at random times but not getting a multi-vitamin every day. Learning through whole language: eating vegetables and hoping you get what you need.

11 The Vitamin Analogy Learning grammar by trying to make it “fun”: eating candy Learning grammar through DGP: getting a good multi-vitamin every day

12 Why Daily Grammar Practice? Is more effective than other daily programs Is effective at every grade level Is effective for every ability level Is effective for English Language Learners

13 Research on the teaching of grammar to students learning a second language suggests that grammar “provides rules and general guidance that facilitate better understanding of the structures of the target language” (Gao, 2001). Gao, C. Z. (2001). Second language learning and the teaching of grammar. Education, 122(2),

14 Why Daily Grammar Practice? Is easy to incorporate into curriculum Takes less time than traditional, less effective methods

15 Rei Noguchi (1991) states that teachers should “make more time available for other writing activities by making less grammar do more.” Noguchi, R. R. (1991). Grammar and the teaching of writing: Limits and possibilities. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

16 Why Daily Grammar Practice? Forces grammar concepts into long-term memory.

17 In order to apply skills that they have learned, students need to know the skills on a subconscious level. To achieve this understanding, they “must engage in practice that gradually becomes distributed, as opposed to massed” (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

18 Why Daily Grammar Practice? Enables learners to apply grammar concepts to their writing Follows a logical progression at each grade level and from first grade through college Breaks concepts into small parts while helping learners to see how all parts work together

19 Students “struggle to understand concepts in isolation, to learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). Brooks, J. G., & Brooks, M. G. (1993). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

20 Why Daily Grammar Practice? Eliminates the need for tedious grammar exercises Complements all types of writing instruction

21 The DGP Process Monday: Identify parts of speech

22

23 The DGP Process Monday: Identify parts of speech Tuesday: Identify sentence functions

24 The DGP Process Monday: Identify parts of speech Tuesday: Identify sentence functions Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type

25 The DGP Process Monday: Identify parts of speech Tuesday: Identify sentence functions Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type Thursday: Add punctuation and capitalization

26 The DGP Process Monday: Identify parts of speech Tuesday: Identify sentence functions Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type Thursday: Add punctuation and capitalization Friday: Diagram the sentence

27

28 Week 27 Monday

29 we read the novel the giver which was written by lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it 1 nom pron av past artnN rel pron hv av/pastprepNccadv 1 nom pron av past artnprep 3 obj pron

30 Week 27 Tuesday

31 we read the novel the giver which was written by lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it vsdotapp v s i () op adv pp vs do t ( ) op adj pp

32 Week 27 Wednesday

33 we read the novel the giver which was written by lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it [][ ][ ] indadj dep ind cd-cx declarative

34 Week 27 Thursday

35 we read the novel the giver which was written by lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it WTG LL ________,,.

36 Week 27 Friday

37 We readnovel (The Giver) the whichwas written by Lois Lowry and wewroteessay then an about it

38

39 The DGP Process (Grade 2) Identify nouns, pronouns, interjections, adjectives, conjunctions, and prepositions. Identify verbs, adverbs, and subjects Identify sentence purpose Add punctuation and capitalization Write a new sentences based on criteria studied throughout the week

40 Week 1 Monday

41 jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike P PP X C

42 Week 1 Tuesday

43 jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike A

44 Week 1 Wednesday

45 jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike dec

46 Week 1 Thursday

47 jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike JIJ ’.

48 Week 1 Friday

49 You and Martha read Taylor’s interesting story. pronoun, conjunction, adjective, possessive noun, same purpose as this week’s sentence

50

51 Scope and Sequence for first grade through college based on Common Core Standards

52 Grade 1 Monday: Find each noun (common, proper, possessive), pronoun, adjective, interjection, preposition, and conjunction in the following sentence. Use an arrow to show which word each adjective describes. Tuesday: Find each action verb in the following sentence and underline it twice. Then find the noun or pronoun that is doing the action and underline it once. Wednesday: Identify the sentence purpose as declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or interrogative. Thursday: Write the sentence with correct capitalization and punctuation. Friday: Write a new sentence that includes specific criteria we’ve worked on this week.

53 Grade 2 Monday: Identify each noun (type), pronoun, interjection, adjective, preposition, and conjunction in the following sentence. Use an arrow to show which word each adjective describes. Tuesday: Identify the action verbs or linking verbs and any adverbs in the following sentence. Use an arrow to show which word each adverb describes. Then underline the simple subject once and the simple predicate twice. Wednesday: Identify the sentence purpose as declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or interrogative. Thursday: Write this week’s sentence with correct capitalization and punctuation. Friday: Write a new sentence that includes specific criteria we’ve worked on this week.

54 Grade 3 Monday: Identify each noun, pronoun (nominative, objective, possessive, reflexive, indefinite), interjection, adjective, preposition, and conjunction (subordinating, coordinating) in the following sentence. Tuesday: Identify the simple subjects, verbs (helping, linking, action), verb tense, adverbs, complete subjects, and complete predicates in the following sentence. Use an arrow to show which word each adverb describes. Wednesday: Identify the clauses (independent, dependent), sentence type (simple, compound, complex), and purpose in the following sentence. Thursday: Write this week’s sentence with correct capitalization and punctuation. Friday: Write a new sentence that includes specific criteria we’ve worked on this week.

55 Grade 4 Monday: Identify each noun (type), pronoun (personal by type and case, relative, reflexive, indefinite), adjective, conjunction (coordinating, subordinating, correlative), adverb, article, interjection. Tuesday: Identify each simple subject, complete subject, complete predicate, and prepositional phrase. Then identify the tense of each simple predicate. Wednesday: Identify the clauses (independent, dependent), sentence type (simple, compound, complex), and sentence purpose (declarative, imperative, interrogative, exclamatory). Then write the sentence with correct capitalization and punctuation. Thursday: Write a new sentence that includes specific criteria we’ve worked on this week. Friday: Fill in the blank spaces in the sentence diagram.

56 Grade 5 Monday: Identify each noun (type), pronoun (type and case), adjective, verb (type and tense), adverb, article, preposition, conjunction (type), and interjection. Tuesday: Identify the simple and complete subject, the simple and complete predicate, and any complements, prepositional phrases, and objects of prepositions. Wednesday: Identify the clauses (independent, dependent), sentence type (simple, compound, complex), and sentence purpose (declarative, imperative, interrogative, exclamatory). Then write the sentence with correct capitalization and punctuation. Thursday: Write a new sentences that includes specific criteria we’ve worked on this week. Friday: Use this week’s sentence to fill in the following diagram structure.

57 Grade 6 Monday: Identify each word as noun (common, proper, possessive), pronoun (type, case, person), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), interjection, or article. Tuesday: Identify sentence parts including subject (complete and simple), complete predicate, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, and prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb). Wednesday: Identify each clause as independent or dependent; identify the sentence type as simple, compound, or complex; and identify the sentence purpose as declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory. Thursday: Add capitalization and punctuation including end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, underlining, and quotation marks. Friday: Fill in the diagram structure using this week’s sentence.

58 Grade 7 Monday: Identify each word as noun (type), pronoun (type, case, person), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, article, preposition, conjunction (type), interjection, gerund, participle, or infinitive. Tuesday: Identify sentence parts including subject (complete and simple), verb (complete and simple, transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, and prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb). Wednesday: Identify each clause as independent, adjective dependent, or adverb dependent; identify the sentence type as simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex; and identify the sentence purpose as declarative, imperative, interrogative, or exclamatory. Thursday: Add correct capitalization and punctuation. Friday: Diagram this week’s sentence.

59 Grade 8 Monday: Identify parts of speech including noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, and article. Tuesday: Identify sentence parts including complete subject, simple subject, complete predicate, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, and object of gerund. Wednesday: Identify clauses (independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent), sentence type (simple, compound, complex, compound-complex), and sentence purpose (declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory). Thursday: Add capitalization and punctuation. Friday: Diagram the sentence.

60 Grade 9 Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks Friday: diagram the sentence

61 Grade 10 Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks Friday: diagram the sentence

62 Grade 11 Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle, objective complements Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes, hyphens Friday: diagram the sentence

63 Grade 12 Monday: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article Tuesday: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle, objective complement, subject of infinitive, absolute phrase Wednesday: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex Thursday: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes, hyphens Friday: diagram the sentence

64 College Level Step One: identify parts of speech: noun, pronoun (type and case), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction (type), gerund, participle, infinitive, article Step Two: identify sentence parts: subject, verb (transitive or intransitive), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, object of preposition, object of infinitive, object of gerund, object of participle, objective complement, subject of infinitive, absolute phrase Step Three: identify clauses and sentence type: independent, adverb dependent, adjective dependent, noun dependent; simple, compound, complex, compound-complex Step Four: add punctuation and capitalization: end punctuation, commas, semicolons, apostrophes, underlining, quotation marks, colons, dashes, hyphens Step Five: diagram the sentence

65 Motivating Students to Try It’s practice, so there’s no pressure. Your students know they don’t get grammar. DGP won’t go away like a two-week grammar unit will. DGP is served in small helpings. Positive reinforcement works!

66 Evaluating Student Progress Pre-test and post-test

67 Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test Kedron Elementary School third-graders T=Total language arts SCR=Sentence construction and revision GM=Grammar and mechanics

68 Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test Kedron Elementary School students T=Total language arts SCR=Sentence construction and revision GM=Grammar and mechanics

69 Pre-test and Post-test Results 44 students tested Grade 9 pre-test average: 71.4 Grade 9 post-test average: 90.1 (+19.7) Grade 10 pre-test average: 88.7 (-1.4)

70 Pre-test and Post-test Results 102 eighth-graders tested Average pre-test score: 69.1 Average post-test score without DGP: 73.6 (+4.5) Average post-test score with DGP: 89.9 (+20.8)

71 Evaluating Student Progress Pre-test and post-test Daily sentences

72

73 Evaluating Student Progress Pre-test and post-test Daily sentences Application of concepts

74 Evaluating Student Progress Pre-test and post-test Daily sentences Application of concepts DGP quiz

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76 Warnings You must make DGP a priority every day. Don’t let yourself get discouraged. The daily habit of doing DGP will take a couple of weeks to instill. You must know grammar well to teach it well. You have to use the lingo when you talk about writing.

77 DGP Plus: Building Stronger Writers

78 Super Sentences My friend got a puppy.

79 No Adjectives Allowed

80


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