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Native Americans: Policy and Resistance

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Presentation on theme: "Native Americans: Policy and Resistance"— Presentation transcript:

1 Native Americans: Policy and Resistance
1621 – 1890 We shall remain website

2 Objectives Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers Analyze the impact of westward expansion and government policies on the lives of Native Americans

3 Two Prevailing Attitudes toward Native Americans since the 1600s
Displacement: Many whites favored forcing Native Americans off their land and making that land available to white planters and miners. Assimilation: Others wanted to convert Native Americans to Christianity, turn them into farmers, and absorb them into white culture. Jackson Biography

4 Manifest Destiny In what ways do the attitudes toward Native Americans reflect the beliefs and assumptions of Manifest Destiny? Displacement Assimilation

5 Student Exemplars

6 (Early) Policy and Resistance
1620: Pilgrims arrive on the Mayflower 1621: Pilgrim Treaty with Massasoit – established peace between the Indians and the settlers. 1630: Puritans found Massachusetts Bay colony 1637: Pequot War – first major conflict; Pequot Nation takes a stand against colonists who continue to claim and clear tribal land for farming; ended in massacre of native men, women, and children. We Shall Remain: Video One (51:10 – 1:14) 1675: King Phillip’s War – son of Massasoit leads attack against Puritans; Ends with death of King Phillip, his head is displayed at Plymouth for 20 years.

7 (Early) Policy and Resistance
1783: Treaty of Paris – US gains independence; Native Americans are excluded from the negotiations. 1787: Northwest Ordinance 1794: Battle of Fallen Timbers – General Anthony Wayne defeats a confederation of Native Americans near present-day Toledo, Ohio. 1809: Treaty of Fort Wayne – Native American chiefs sign away 3 million acres of tribal land to US government; Shawnee chief Tecumseh forms a confederacy. We Shall Remain: Video Two; Page 203 1811: Battle of Tippecanoe – General William Henry Harrison defeats Tecumseh’s confederation, burns Shawnee capital to the ground. : War of 1812

8 Andrew Jackson: Background
Born in 1797 Practiced law in Tennessee Became a national hero during War of 1812 Defeated Creek Indians at Battle of Horseshoe bend Defeated British at Battle of New Orleans

9 Andrew Jackson: Background
Ran for President in 1824 Won majority of popular votes, but not electoral votes House of Rep. decided the election in favor of John Q. Adams

10 Andrew Jackson: Background
Ran again in 1828 During the campaign, Jackson appealed to the “common citizen” Thanks to an expansion of voting rights, Jackson won by a landslide

11 Focus Questions (pg. 226) Who were the “five civilized tribes?”
What did they do to earn this nickname? Where did they live? What were President Jackson’s beliefs about Native Americans and how the government should deal with them?

12 Student Exemplars

13 1828: Jackson elected President
1830: Indian Removal Act – fed. gov. provides $$ to states to negotiate treaties; Native Americans forced to move west. 1832: Worcester v. Georgia - Supreme Court rules in favor of the Cherokee; Jackson refuses to enforce the decision. 1832: Black Hawk War - rebellion led by Sauk chief; Illinois militia slaughter more than 200 Sauk and Fox people. 1834: “Indian Country” created – fed. gov. passes an act that guarantees tribes' rights to lands west of the Mississippi. (map) 1835: Texas Revolution begins 1838: Trail of Tears Trail of Tears Map

14 Trail of Tears (Video)

15 In what region of the US does “Indian Country” lie?
“Indian Country” in 1834 “Be it enacted That all that part of the United States west of the Mississippi, and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas Be taken and deemed Indian country And be it further enacted, That if any person shall make a settlement on any lands belonging to any Indian tribe shall [be fined] the sum of one thousand dollars And it shall, moreover, be lawful for the President To employ such military force as he may judge necessary to remove from the lands . . .any such person . . .”

16 In what region of the US does “Indian Country” lie?
“Indian Country” in 1834

17 A Clash of Cultures Read and discuss the Native American quotes with your partner. Then answer the following question: What do the quotes tell us about the Native American philosophy about land and land ownership?

18 Native American Perspective on Land and Ownership
"What is this you call property? It cannot be the earth, for the land is our mother, nourishing all her children, beasts, birds, fish and all men. The woods, the streams, everything on it belongs to everybody and is for the use of all. How can one man say it belongs only to him?" – attributed to Massasoit (c – 1661)

19 Native American Perspective on Land and Ownership
“How can you buy or sell the sky, the warmth of the land? The idea is strange to us. If we do not own the freshness of the air and the sparkle of the water, how can you buy them? Every part of the earth is sacred to my people.” – attributed to Chief Seattle, 1854

20 Native American Perspective on Land and Ownership
“My reason teaches me that land cannot be sold. The Great Spirit gave it to his children to live upon. So long as they occupy and cultivate it, they have a right to the soil Nothing can be sold but such things as can be carried away.” – Black Hawk, 1833

21 Native American Perspective on Land Ownership and Treaties
"If we ever owned the land we own it still, for we never sold it. In the treaty councils the commissioners have claimed that our country had been sold to the government. Suppose a white man should come to me and say, Joseph, I like your horses, and I want to buy them. Then he goes to my neighbor and says to him; Joseph's horses. I want to buy them, but he refuses to sell. My neighbor answers, Pay me the money and I will sell you Joseph's horses. The white man returns to me, and says, Joseph, I have bought your horses and you must let me have them. If we sold our lands to the government, this is the way they were bought." --Chief Joseph, 1879

22 Key Terms Use the glossary of your textbook to define the following terms in your binder: Nomadic Assimilation

23 A Clash of Cultures Anglo-Americans Native Americans
Land can not be owned by individuals Used by everyone for hunting, fishing, some farming Saw treaties as agreements in which they received gifts; in return, they agreed to share the land for a limited time. Land is privately owned Used by owner for settlement, farming, or mining Saw treaties as a one- time deal in which Native Americans sold their land to new owners and, therefore, gave up all rights to it.

24 *Special Note on Land Use
For every one acre a white settler needed for farming, Native Americans needed twenty for hunting, fishing, and farming.

25 Cultures Clash on the Prairie
(pg. 409) Why did white settlers consider the plains to be “unsettled,” despite the fact that various Native American tribes already lived there?

26 A Nomadic Life on the Plains
Tepees were ideal dwellings for Plains Indians because they could be easily disassembled and transported. These lightweight structures were made from tanned buffalo hides.

27 A Nomadic Life on the Plains
A travois is a type of sled used by North American Indians to carry goods, consisting of two joined poles. The travois was originally dragged by hand or by dogs, and then later by horses (after the introduction of horses by the Spanish).

28 Cultures Clash on the Prairie: Section Summary

29 The Buffalo The buffalo or bison was an extremely important part of the plains people’s lives. They used virtually every part of the buffalo from the hide for clothing to the stomach for holding water. At one time, an estimated sixty five million buffalo roamed the plains of present-day Canada and the United States. A buffalo can weigh up to 2,000 pounds and live as long as 30 years.

30 The Buffalo Page 413


32 The Hunt For thousands of years, Native Americans used buffalo jumps to kill the creatures. They would place some of the hunters on either side of a path (usually wearing wolf skins) to drive the animals over a steep cliff. After the Spanish brought horses to North America in the late 1500s, the hunt – and native peoples’ way of life began to change. A typical buffalo jump

33 *Special Note on Land Use
For every one acre a white settler needed for farming, Native Americans needed twenty for hunting, fishing, and farming.

34 Cultures Clash on the Prairie
(pg. 410) In 1834, what was the Great Plains region, according to the federal government? How had this policy changed by the 1850s? Why do you think this change occurred? How did most Native Americans react to this change? What often happened as a result? MAP

35 Shrinking Native Lands (pg. 411)

36 Conflict on the Bozeman Trail (pgs. 410 - 411)
The Bozeman Trail was a short cut that connected the Oregon Trail and the gold-rich territory of Montana. Why is it not surprising that several battles took place near the Bozeman Trail?

37 Forced Assimilation “Be it enacted That. . . the President of the United States [is authorized] whenever in his opinion any reservation is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section (160 acres); To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and To each other single person under eighteen years one-sixteenth of a section . . .” -Dawes Act, 1879

38 Forced Assimilation

39 Forced Assimilation The Dawes Act was named for its author, Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts. Dawes once expressed his faith in the civilizing power of private property: “[to be civilized is to] wear civilized clothes... cultivate the ground, live in houses, ride in Studebaker wagons, send children to school, drink whiskey [and] own property."

40 Forced Assimilation “If you tie a horse to a stake, do you expect he will grow fat? If you pen an Indian up on a small plot of earth, and compel him to stay there, he will not be contented, nor will he grow and prosper. I have asked the great white chiefs where he gets the authority to say to the Indian that he shall stay in one place, while he sees white men going where they please. He can not tell me.” -Chief Joseph, 1879

41 Forced Assimilation According to the Dawes Act, any remaining native land would be sold to white settlers. The revenue generated from the sale of native lands was supposed to be used by Native Americans to buy farming tools. By 1932, about 2/3 of the territory had been sold to white settlers. Native Americans received no money from the sale of this land.

42 As a result of the Dawes Act 93 million acres of Indian land is lost.
"...the real aim of [the Dawes Act] is to get at the Indians land and open it up for resettlement." - Senator Henry M. Teller, 1881 As a result of the Dawes Act 93 million acres of Indian land is lost.

43 The Dawes Act and Manifest Destiny
Do Now Question: Main Points of the Dawes Act: In what ways does the Dawes Act reflect the beliefs and assumptions of Manifest Destiny? Reservation lands would be broken up. Some land would be given to individual Native Americans (160 acres to each head of household; 80 acres to unmarried adults) The rest would be sold to white settlers; revenue generated would be given to Native Americans to buy farming tools.

44 Forced Assimilation "A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him and save the man.” -U.S. Army officer Richard Henry Pratt , founder of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in 1879

45 Carlisle Indian School
Established in 1879, the Carlisle Indian School was one of the first boarding schools for Native Americans. The students were forbidden to practice their religion or speak their language. Before and after postcards were sold by the school to show off their "progress."

46 Carlisle Indian School
Top Left: Male and female students reading in class. Bottom Left: Physics Class Bottom Right: Group of Sioux boys arrive at the school

47 Carlisle Indian School
Left: A group of Apache students on their first day at Carlisle Indian School; Right: The same students four months later. NPR

48 Forced Assimilation Is there a standard set of cultural values that should be held by all people? Why were Indians subjected to a forced process of assimilation and not the newly arrived immigrants? Image: “Educating the Indians--a female pupil of the government school at Carlisle visits her home at Pine Ridge Agency” (Cover Illustration: Frank Leslie's Illustrated newspaper, 1884 March 15)

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