Presentation on theme: "Where does tap water come from?. Modern waterworks and water towers."— Presentation transcript:
Where does tap water come from?
Modern waterworks and water towers
HAVE YOU EVER CONSIDERED HOW MANY THINGS YOU CAN DO WITH TAP WATER? COULD YOU LIVE WITHOUT IT? Houses, schools and offices in the developed countries are all connected to a water supply. We don’t all have... a tap!
The Acea Group Among the most important Italian public utilities, Acea is an industrial Group which focuses on the consolidation and creation of value from its two main activities, energy and water. Stock market listed since 1999, it deals with the management of energy, environmental and water services: the production, sale and distribution of energy, the development of renewable sources, the disposal and creation of energy from waste, the public and artistic lighting, and an integrated water service (aqueducts, sewerage and purification). Acea has always taken seriously its corporate social responsibility, and pays particular attention to all stakeholders, profitability, service quality and sustainable development.
Waterworks of Rome The major modern waterworks are: Aqueduct of Peschiera-Capore Pia Acqua Marcia Aqueduct Bracciano (or Paolo) Aqueduct Appio-Alessandrino Aqueduct New High Vergine Aqueduct (N.A.V.E.)
Aqueduct of Peschiera-Capore MAIN ASPECTS The name comes from two big springs near Rieti from which it takes its water One of the biggest aqueduct in the world using only spring water Total length: about 130 km Average flow rate: about 14 m 3 /s Built and completed between 1937 and 1980 The terminus is a Fountain located in Piazzale degli Eroi
Aqueduct of Peschiera-Capore HISTORY Conception in the early twentieth century by Eng. Roselli Lorenzini First project in 1932, flow rate of 4 m 3 /s from Peschiera River’s springs, with a big tunnel and an hydroelectric power plant (in Salisano) Works started in 1937. In 1943 works stopped because of the war. First start in 1949, but with a limited flow rate (1,2 m 3 /s) In 1957 the first project was completed, with an increased flow rate (5,5 m 3 /s) 1966-1971: costruction of the second branch from Salisano hydroelectric power plant. Flow rate increased to 9,5 m 3 /s 1975-1980: connected to Le Capore springs. Final flow rate is about 14 m 3 /s
Terminus fountain of Peschiera-Capore Aqueduct
Pia Acqua Marcia Aqueduct MAIN ASPECTS It follows about the same route of the ancient Acqua Marcia aqueduct Opened September 10th 1870, ten days before Garibaldi’s conquest of Rome. Average flow rate: about 4 m 3 /s Total lenght: about 91 km Terminus Fountain is the Naiadi fountain, in Piazza della Repubblica.
Pia Acqua Marcia aqueduct HISTORY The ancient Acqua Marcia acqueduct was built in 144 b.C. by the praetor Quinto Marcio Re. It took the water from the upper basin of Aniene River, near Marano Equo, between Arsoli and Agosta Its total lenght was about 62 roman miles, a little more then 91 km. The total flow rate was 4.690 quinarie, about 2,2 liters per second In the late nineteenth century Pope Pio IX wanted to rebuild the aqueduct, adding his name to it: “Pia Acqua Marcia” In the twentieth century the aqueduct was boosted by several works The last enhancement was in 1970, with the eighth siphon to Rome.
Pia Acqua Marcia aqueduct’s terminus fountain
Bracciano (or Paolo) Aqueduct Opened in 1997. It can take up to 6 m 3 /s of water from Bracciano lake but at present the potabilization plant can treat just 4 m 3 /s. Total lenght: about 63 km. This aqueduct is employed only when needed, especially in the summer because of the lower quality of the water
Appio-Alessandrino Aqueduct Built and completed between 1963 and 1968. Average flow rate: 1,2 mc/s. Total lenght: about 20 km. Built to furnish the South-East areas of the city. It takes water from Appia and Felice-Alessandrina springs.
New High Vergine Aqueduct (N.A.V.E.) Built between 1930 and 1937 by Governatorato di Roma. Average flow rate: 0,6 mc/s. Total lenght: 20,450 km. It’s fed by Acqua Vergine springs. The terminus Fountain is in Piazza del Popolo on the side of Pincio.
New High Vergine Aqueduct’s terminus fountain
Trevi Fountain – Acqua Vergine
Water tanks and water towers Aqueducts bring water to “water centres”, from which the distribution network begins Rome is big city with many areas at different altitudes. Areas with different altitudes need separate distribution systems, to avoid problems Every “pressure area” needs its own water tank In “water centres” there are water tanks for every “pressure area” connected to it.
Water centers In a water centre usually there is: an underground water tank an elevated water tank (or water tower) a piezometric tower (i.e. a small elevated water tower) The piezometric tower feeds the upper zone The water tanks feed lower zones One of the most famous water center in Rome is the EUR water center, that has a very particular design.
Map of Rome’s aqueducts
The typical “nasone” in Rome
Conclusion Rome’s aqueduct system is complex, articulated, efficient, widely automatized and monitored by a control room Roman citizens nowadays have a large amount of drinkable water, about 600 liters for each inhabitant every day The ancient Romans had more: about 1000 litres for each inhabitant every day! Water quality is very high because its source is largely spring water.
1224 “Laudato si’, mi ‘Signore, per sor’acqua, la quale è multo utile et humile et pretiosa et casta”. 1224 - S. FRANCESCO D’ASSISI “IL CANTICO DELLE CREATURE”
1224 “Praised be You, my Lord for Sister Water, so very useful, and humble and precious, and chaste”. 1224 - “CANTICLE OF CREATURES” prayer by St. FRANCIS OF ASSISI