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DARE Institute of Space Technology 1 1 Presenter: Anum Tauqir Supervisors: Principle Supervisor: Dr. Nadeem Javaid (CAST-CIIT) Co-Supervisor:

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Presentation on theme: "DARE Institute of Space Technology 1 1 Presenter: Anum Tauqir Supervisors: Principle Supervisor: Dr. Nadeem Javaid (CAST-CIIT) Co-Supervisor:"— Presentation transcript:

1 DARE Institute of Space Technology 1 1 Presenter: Anum Tauqir Supervisors: Principle Supervisor: Dr. Nadeem Javaid (CAST-CIIT) Co-Supervisor: Dr. Aamir Habib (IST)

2 DARE Institute of Space Technology 2 2 Outline Introduction Motivation Distance Aware Relaying Energy-efficient (DARE) –Implementation, results and conclusion Non-Invasive Inductive Link Model for Pacemakers –Implementation, results and conclusion

3 DARE Institute of Space Technology 3 3 Introduction Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) –Network of sensors Implement communications on, near, and around the human body Applications –Medical field –Aerospace –Sports and Entertainment etc. In-Vivo Pacemaker: to monitor heart patients. Wearable Sensor analyzing motion of a body. Types of sensors

4 DARE Institute of Space Technology 4 4 Motivation M-ATTEMPT [1] - Mobility-supporting Adaptive Threshold- based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol, exhibits –Low stability period –Less network lifetime –High energy consumption Proposition of DARE – Distance Aware Relaying Energy- efficient Protocol Non-invasive induction mechanism to recharge sensors [1] N. Javaid, Z. Abbas, M. Farid, Z. Khan, and N. Alrajeh, “M-attempt: A new energy-efficient routing protocol in wireless body area sensor networks,” 4th International Conference on Ambient Systems, Networks and Technologies (ANT 2013), 2013, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2013.

5 DARE Institute of Space Technology 5 5 Proposed Scheme: DARE Block Diagram Different sink scenarios Basic schematic diagram of protocol operation. BSs - Detect physical parameters under low parameters. BRs - Act as forwarders of data from BSs to BRs to MS/Sink (Mobile Phone). Sink – External monitoring system (server, desktop). MS - A type of sink device with either unlimited or at least very high energy resources (PDA). Two threshold monitoring sensors (Glucose, Temperature) Two threshold monitoring sensors (Glucose, Temperature) Five continuous monitoring sensors (ECG, Heart rate, Pulse rate, Motions, Toxins) Five continuous monitoring sensors (ECG, Heart rate, Pulse rate, Motions, Toxins) Body Sensors (BSs) Body Relay (BR) External Network External Network S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Sink Or Main Sensor (MS)

6 DARE Institute of Space Technology 6 6 Proposed Scheme: DARE Sensor’s Deployment Sensors deployment on patient measuring, seven different parameters along with a relay node (BR) placed on chest.  Hospital ward - 40 x 20 ft 2  Eight patients  Variable sensor types - standard deployment of sensors (sensing sensors)  Five scenarios ( Sinks may be static or mobile)  Distance changes energy consumption  Different energy parameters  Mobility in patient

7 DARE Institute of Space Technology 7 7 Proposed Scheme: DARE Communication Flow If E BS > 0 If E BS > 0 Stops monitoring For all BSs If E BR > 0 If E BR > 0 If BS= th If lo/hi BS=cont Measure E res,d,t pd Yes No Yes No  BSs = body sensors  E BS = energy of body sensor  E BR = energy of body relay  th = threshold  lo = low threshold  hi = high threshold  cont = continuous  E res = residual energy  d = distance between sensors  t pd = propagation delay  Temperature threshold = 35 0 C C  Glucose threshold = 110mg/dL mg/dL Protocol Operation for monitoring a patient. Monitoring a patent

8 DARE Institute of Space Technology 8 8 Proposed Scheme: DARE Scenario-1 Deploys single static sink. The communication flow is from BSs to BR to sink. Continuous data monitoring sensors (BSs) Event-driven data monitoring sensors (BSs) Body Relay (BR) Sink

9 DARE Institute of Space Technology 9 9 Proposed Scheme: DARE Scenario-2 The BR checks for the nearest sink by calculating it’s distance with each sink. The communication flow is from BSs to BR to nearest Sink1/2/3/4. Continuous data monitoring sensors (BSs) Event-driven data monitoring sensors (BSs) Body Relay (BR) Sink Sink1 Sink2 Sink3 Sink4

10 DARE Institute of Space Technology 10 Proposed Scheme: DARE Scenario-3 The deployment of MS helps the BR to consume little energy as, BR transmits data over shorter distance. Communication flow is from BSs to BR to MS to Sink. Continuous data monitoring sensors (BSs) Event-driven data monitoring sensors (BSs) Body Relay (BR) Sink Main Sensor (MS)

11 DARE Institute of Space Technology 11 Proposed Scheme: DARE Scenario-4 Continuous data monitoring sensors (BSs) Event-driven data monitoring sensors (BSs) Body Relay (BR) Sink 31 2 It follows the same communication flow as sceanrio-1 however, now the sink is made mobile which, moves along the center of ward.

12 DARE Institute of Space Technology 12 Proposed Scheme: DARE Scenario-5 Multiple sinks move around the walls of the ward altogether. The BR communicates with the nearest sink. The communication flow is from BSs to BR to the nearest moving Sink1/2/3/4. Continuous data monitoring sensors (BSs) Event-driven data monitoring sensors (BSs) Body Relay (BR) Sink Sink1 Sink2 Sink3 Sink

13 DARE Institute of Space Technology 13 Comparison M-ATTEMPT and DARE Sensors deployment on proposed DARE protocol and compared M-ATTEMPT protocol. M-ATTEMPT Patient DARE Patient

14 DARE Institute of Space Technology 14 Results for Static Patients Alive Nodes DARE’s scenario-5, incorporates multiple moving sinks. BRs reduce the energy consumption of nodes.

15 DARE Institute of Space Technology 15 Number of Received Packets The probability for receiving packets with success is set to be 0.7. Sink mobility in scenario-5 let the network to continue operation for more rounds and let network to receive huge number of packets.

16 DARE Institute of Space Technology 16 Propagation Delay DARE exhibits more delay in case of all scenarios. As the communication flow is not direct between transmitter and receiver, delay is high.

17 DARE Institute of Space Technology 17 Results for Mobile Patient Alive Nodes Deployment of BRs helps in reducing the degradation of network performance, due to mobility.

18 DARE Institute of Space Technology 18 Number of Received Packets In case of DARE’s scenario-5, the network is able to receive more packets as compared to rest scenarios.

19 DARE Institute of Space Technology 19 Propagation Delay DARE exhibits more delay in case of all scenarios as compared to M-ATTEMPT.

20 DARE Institute of Space Technology 20 DARE vs. M-ATTEMPT Network ParameterDAREM-ATTEMPT Stability Periodhighlow Network Lifetimehighlow Energy Consumptionminimummaximum Throughputhighlow Propagation Delayhighlow

21 DARE Institute of Space Technology 21 Non-Invasive Induction to Recharge Sensors Aim is to –Recharge pacemakers sensor’s battery Avoid frequent surgical operations and battery failure Extend working duration of sensors –Pacemakers Create forced rhythms –Natural human heart beats in arrhythmic patients Schematic view of an inductive link Primary side inducing voltage to regulate power at secondary side (implanted inside human body).

22 DARE Institute of Space Technology 22 Induction Models A capacitor is connected in series at primary side, in order to induce sufficient amount of voltage to the secondary coil. A capacitor C 2p has been connected in parallel at secondary side, making a low pass filter which, allows low frequencies to pass through while, blocking the higher frequencies, thereby, preventing damages to body tissues. Series Tuned Primary Circuit (STPC) Series Tuned Primary and Parallel Tuned Secondary Circuit (STPPTSC) [2] G. B. Hmida, H. Ghariani, and M. Samet. “Design of wireless power and data transmission circuits for implantable biomicrosystem,” Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. 2, 2007, pp. 153–164. [2]

23 DARE Institute of Space Technology 23 Link Parameters STPC STPPTSC Voltage Gain Link Efficiency Quality Factor [1] [3] [4] [5] [6] [2]

24 DARE Institute of Space Technology 24 Results Voltage Gain As, k increases V load /V s increases. V load increases by about 2 times than V s. V load increases by about 3 times than V s. STPC STPPTSC

25 DARE Institute of Space Technology 25 Results Link Efficiency STPCSTPPTSC As, k increases η increases and is about 75%. η increases by 15%, i.e. 90% of the input power has been efficiently transferred to the secondary side.

26 DARE Institute of Space Technology 26 Results Quality Factor In case of STPPTSC, the Q factor is higher as compared to STPC. Thus, achieves good tuning under resonant conditions at f= MHz.

27 DARE Institute of Space Technology 27 STPC vs. STPPTSC Link ParameterSTPCSTPPTSC Voltage Gain2x3x Link Efficiency75%90% Quality Factor40.5%53%

28 DARE Institute of Space Technology 28

29 DARE Institute of Space Technology 29 Publications [1] Tauqir, A., N. Javaid, S. Akram, A. Rao, and S. N. Mohammad. "Distance Aware Relaying Energy- efficient: DARE to Monitor Patients in Multi-hop Body Area Sensor Networks." In Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), 2013 Eighth International Conference on, pp IEEE, [2] Tauqir, A., S. Akram, A. H. Khan, N. Javaid, and M. Akbar. "Non-Invasive Induction Link Model for Implantable Biomedical Microsystems: Pacemaker to Monitor Arrhythmic Patients in Body Area Networks." In Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), 2013 Eighth International Conference on, pp IEEE, [3] Akram, S., N. Javaid, A. Tauqir, A. Rao, and S. N. Mohammad. "THE-FAME: THreshold Based Energy-Efficient FAtigue MEasurement for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks Using Multiple Sinks." In Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), 2013 Eighth International Conference on, pp IEEE, 2013.


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