3A famous sampling mistake That’s TrumanThey only asked rich, white people with telephones who’d they vote for. Sadly, they published their mistake
4What is a sample?A sample is any part of a population of individuals on whom information is obtained: students, teachers, young learners, etc.Selection of the sample of individuals who will participate in the study is an important part of research.Sampling refers to the process of selecting these individuals
5Samples and Populations A sample is the group on which information is obtained.The population is the larger group to which the researcher hopes to apply the results.All university students studying English Language Teaching in Turkey can be the population; the ones studying ELT in the regions of Adana and Mersin can be a sample.Sometimes the sample and the population may be identical.
6Most populations are large, diverse and scattered, so it may be difficult to obtain data from all. In that case, sampling is needed.E.g.You are interested in the way English teachers are assessing young learners in primary schools in Adana. There are 1,500 students in primary schools in that city. You can select 150 students in different schools as a sample for your study.**The number generally depends what methodology you will use.
7Defining the Population To define the population, we should answer the question, “What am I exactly interested in?”, “What is the group to whom I want to generalize the results of my study?”Some examples:All high school principalsAll fifth-grade classrooms in MersinAll language teachers teaching young learners
8Target vs. Accessible Populations The actual population (target population) is rarely available. Then the population to which a researcher is able to generalize is the accessible population.E.g.Research Problem: The effects of computer-assisted instruction on the reading achievement of 1st- and 2nd-graders in Turkey.Target population: All 1st- and 2nd-graders in TurkeyAccessible population: All 1st- and 2nd-graders in Seyhan region of AdanaOR-- All 1st- and 2nd-graders in Celalettin Sayhan Primary SchoolSample: 10% of the 1st- and 2nd-graders in Seyhan region of AdanaOR– 150 students attending 1st- and 2nd-graders in Celalettin Sayhan Primary School
9Random (Probability) vs. Nonrandom (Non-probability) Sampling Random sampling (probability) means selecting the samples without criteria (drawing 10 teachers out of 50 to interview)Nonrandom sampling (non-probability) means selecting the samples based on a kind of criteria (the ones who have at least 5 years of experience)
10ScenarioHypo: Students with low self-esteem demonstrate lower achievement in school subjects.Target population: all eighth-graders in TurkeyAccessible population: all eighth-graders in AdanaFeasible sample size: n=
11Random Sampling Methods 1. Simple Random Sampling:The one in which each and every member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected.If the sample is large, this is the best method.This can be done using a table of random numbers (can be found in statistics books) or just drawing out the names/numbers, etc.
12Example on ScenarioIdentify all eight-graders in Adana (private and public schools). Assign each student a number and select a sample of students using a table of random numbersPS. Time-consuming to reach all schools
132. Stratified Random Sampling The process in which certain subgroups (strata) are selected for the sample in the same proportion as they exist in the population.E.g. If you want to compare students’ achievements regarding their gender, you should ensure the proportion of males and females is the same.500 students (population)200 males and 300 femalesYou want to use 20%So you select 40 males and 60 females (20% from each group)
14Example on ScenarioObtain data for all eighth-graders in Adana and determine the proportion of each type (e.g. 80% public; 20% private)Public 80% of 200= 160Private 20% of 200= 40Randomly select students
153. Cluster Random Sampling Selection of groups of subjects, clusters, not individualsUsed when it is not possible to select a sample of individuals (list of all individuals not available, target populations is too big, administrative reasons…)E.g. You want to see all elementary students’ attitudes towards English. Not possible to get their names and use simple or stratified random sampling. Then use some classes from selected schools
16Example on ScenarioIdentify all private and public schools in Adana (having 8th grade).Assign each school a number and select randomly 4 schools. All 8th graders in these schools are your samples.Estimate of 2 classes per school x 30 students each x 4 schools = 240 students
174. Two-Stage Random Sampling Combining individual and cluster random samplingE.g.first cluster sampling: select N number of classes from the populationSecond individual sampling: select N number of students from each class
18Example on Scenario Randomly select 25 schools in Adana. Then randomly select 8 students from each25 x 8 = 200
19Nonrandom Sampling Methods 1. Systematic SamplingSelecting every Nth individual in the population.Get the names of all the population (alphabetically listed) and select every nth numberBe careful! if the names are not alphabetically listed (e.g. listed according to the success level), your results may be biased as you might not have any students who have poor/high performance
20Example on Scenario Identify the students in all schools Identify every 5th student if there are students in total (250 students as sample)
212. Convenience SamplingSelecting individuals who are available.Generally, this sampling is not considered to represent a population so is avoided. If this is a must, you should include as much information about the sample as possible.
22Example on ScenarioSelect all 8th graders in 4 schools to which you can access.Estimate of 2 classes in each school X 30 students X 4 = 240
233. Purposive SamplingSelecting samples based on researcher’s judgmentMain disadvantage: researcher’s judgment may be wrong.
24ExampleSelect 8 classes from all schools on the basis of data you have.Be sure they are representative of all 8th graders
25Choosing the method Method Best when Simple random sampling Whole population is available.Stratified sampling (random within target groups)There are specific sub-groups to investigate (eg. demographic groupings).Systematic sampling (every nth person)When a stream of representative people are available (eg. in the street).Cluster sampling (all in limited groups)When population groups are separated and access to all is difficult, eg. in many distant cities.Purposive sampling (based on intent)You are studying particular groupsConvenience sampling (use who's available)You cannot proactively seek out subjects.