3Congenital Syphilis Transplacental transmission of spirochetes; Transmission rate 90% if the mother has untreated primary or secondary syphilis.The child is at greatest risk when the mother is in the early stages of infectionIf secondary syphilis treated before the last month of pregnancy, the child's risk of developing congenital syphilis decreases by 98%.
4Untreated Syphilis in Pregnancy Fetal infection can develop at any time during gestation.Because inflammatory changes do not occur in the fetus until after the first trimester of pregnancy, organogenesis is unaffected.All organ systems may be involved.Can cause:Miscarriages,Premature birthStillbirthsDeath of newborn babies: pulmonary haemorrhage.
5Congenital Syphilis Manifestations are defined as Early if they appear in the first 2 years of lifeLate: develop after age 2 years.Congenital syphilis does not have a primary stageEarly-onset disease, manifestations result from transplacental spirochetemia and are analogous to the secondary stage of acquired syphilis.Late-onset disease (>2 years) is considered contagious.
6Early-onset congenital syphilis (before or at age 2 y) 60% of infants are asymptomatic at birth.Sx develop within the first 2/12 of life. Almost 100% has hepatomegaly; biochemical evidence of liver dysfunction is usually observed.Common Sn: skeletal abnormalities, rash, and generalized lymphadenopathy.Radiographic abnormalities, periostitis or osteitis, involve multiple bones. Sometimes, the lesion is painful and an infant will favor an extremity (pseudopalsy)
7Early-onset congenital syphilis (before or at age 2 y) Maculopapular rash, may involve palms and soles.In contrast to acquired syphilis, a vesicular rash and bullae (pemphigus syphiliticus) may develop - highly contagious.Mucosal involvement may present as rhinitis ("snuffles") – poor feeding.Nasal secretions are highly contagious.
8Early-onset congenital syphilis (before or at age 2 y) Hematological abnormalities include anemia and thrombocytopenia. Some have leukocytosis.Abnormal CSF examinationSeen in a half of symptomatic infants,10% of asymptomatic baby.
9Late Onset Manifestations Neurosyphilis and involvement of the teeth, bones, eyes, and the eighth cranial nerve, as follows:Bone involvement - Saber shins, saddle nose, short maxillae, protruding mandible, swollen kneesHigoumenakis sign, enlargement of the sternal end of clavicle in late congenital syphilis.Teeth involvement - Notched, peg-shaped incisors (Hutchinson teeth)Pigmentary involvement - Linear scars (rhagades) at the corners of the mouth and nose result from bacterial infection of skin lesions.Interstitial keratitis - Presents in the 1st or 2nd decade of lifeSensory-neural hearing loss (eighth cranial nerve deafness) - Presents between age 10 and 40 years.
11Infants should be evaluated if they were born to sero-positive women who: Have untreated syphilisWere treated for syphilis less than 1 month before deliveryWere treated for syphilis during pregnancy with a non - penicillin regimenDid not have the expected decrease in RPR titre after treatmentWere treated but had insufficient serologic follow- up during pregnancy to assess disease activity
12EVALUATION OF INFANT A thorough physical examination RPR (compare with mother’s titre) / EIAFTA-AbsCSF analysis for cells, protein and CSF-VDRL testLong bones X-rayChest X-ray
13Treat if they have: Any evidence of active disease A reactive CSF-VDRL / FTA-AbsAn abnormal CSF finding ( WBC > 5/ mm3 or protein > 50 mg / dl ) regardless of CSF serologySerum RPR titre that are at least 4 times higher than their mother's.Positive EIA-IgM antibody* Treatment (with penicillin) before the development of late symptoms is essential
14RxAqueous Cystalline Penicillin G: 50,000 units/kg/dose 12 hourly for first 7 days then 8 hourly for the following 3-7 days ORProcaine Penicillin, 50,000 units/kg daily IM for days OR*IV/IM Ceftriaxone 75 mg/kg (< 30 days old) or 100 mg/kg (>30 days old)*If more than a day of treatment is missed, the whole course should be restartedInfants who should be evaluated but whose follow-up cannot be assured should be treated with a single dose of Benzathine Penicillin, 50,000 units/kg IM.
15F/up and MonitoringSero-positive untreated infants must be closely monitored at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months of age.RPR should decrease by 3/12 of age and usually disappear by 6/12 of age. Treat (with the same regimen as above) if:Symptoms and signs persist or recurRPR titre increase fourfold or more by 3/12 of ageRPR still positive by 6/12 of ageTPHA still positive by 1 year of ageTreated infants must be monitored clinically and serologically at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Lumbar puncture should be repeated 6 monthly till normal.
16THERAPY OF OLDER INFANTS AND CHILDREN After the newborn period, children discovered to have syphilis should have a CSF analysis to rule out congenital syphilis.Any child with congenital syphilis or with neurologic involvement should be treated withAqueous Cystalline Penicillin, 200, ,000 units/kg/day administered as 50,000 units/kg/dose 4- 6 hourly for 10 to 14 days (B, III)