Presentation on theme: "Sugarcane Production in Egypt: Synthesis of Previous Research findings Bahgat M. Abdel-Maksoud Professor of Agricultural Extension Faculty of Agriculture,"— Presentation transcript:
Sugarcane Production in Egypt: Synthesis of Previous Research findings Bahgat M. Abdel-Maksoud Professor of Agricultural Extension Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Egypt
This paper depends mainly on findings of some previous research as well as information gathered recently through personal meetings and interviews with some researchers, extension personnel, and farmers.
Previous Research Papers Abdel – Maksoud, Bahgat M. & Amro B. A. Elshrabassee ( 2007 ) Production and Marketing Problems For Sugar Cane Growers in Qena Governorate, The Eighth African Crop Science Conference. This paper was also published in: Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 5, Number 10, 2011 October 2011 (Serial Number 42):
Abdel-Maksoud, Bahgat M. (2008a) Assessment of Problems Facing Sugar Cane Growers in Qena Governorate, Egypt, The Third International Sugar Conference IS-2008, Sina University, Al- Arish, Egypt, 11 – 14 September
Abdel-Maksoud, Bahgat M. (2008b) Essentials For Improving Sugar Cane Productivity in Egypt With Special Reference To Qena Governorate, The Third International Sugar Conference IS- 2008, Sina University, Al-Arish, Egypt, 11 – 14 September
Abdel-Maksoud, Bahgat M. and Ez- Eldin E. M. Gad-El-Kareim (2011) Farmers’ Perception of Sugarcane Production and Marketing Problems in Qena and Asswan Governorates, Egypt, Nature And Science Journal, Vol. 9, No. 5:
Gad-El-Kareim, Ez-Eldin E. M. (2011) Assessment of Extension Needs for sugarcane Growers in Qena and Asswan Governorates, Ph. D. thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt
Keith, John; S. Hussein; E. Mahdy (1998), 'EGYPT‘s SUGARCANE POLICY AND STRATEGY FOR WATER MANAGEMENT, Reform Design and Implementation Unit, APRP - RDI Unit, USAlD CONTRACT No. 263-C , Report No. 33.
Alboghdady, M. A. (2010) Water Scarcity and Food Security: The Role of Virtual Water Flows in Cereals trade in the North African Countries, Journal of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences,1(5).
Hoekstra, A. Y.; Chapagain, A. K.; Aldaya, M. M.; & Mekonnen, M. M. (2011), The Water Footprint Assessment Manual, Setting the Global Standard, Eartscan Publishin for Sustainable Future, London, Washington DC., Available At: loads/TheWaterFootprintAssessment Manual.pdf
Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (2012) Sugar Crops and Sugar Production in Egypt, Sugar Crop Council. Virtual Water – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2012), Virtual Water, Available at:
Water Footprints and Virtual Water (2012) The Concepts of Water Footprint and Virtual Water, Available at: /waTer-footprint.htm Water Wiki.net (2012), Virtual Water, Available at: idex. php/Virtualwater
The paper is divided into four sections: 1. Basic information on sugarcane and its producing regions in Egypt 2. Essentials for improving agricultural productivity of sugarcane. 3. Irrigation water issue. 4. Role of agricultural research and e xtension.
Section 1 Basic information on sugarcane and Its producing regions in Egypt
Governo rate Area (Faddan) Productio n (Ton) Product ivity (Ton/Fad) % of Area % of producti on Menia Sohag Qena Luxor Aswan Total
Section 2 Essentials for improving agricultural productivity of sugarcane
In order to increase agricultural productivity of sugarcane in Egypt, There must exist (Figure 1): An effective research system An effective extension system Effective systems for supply, credit, marketing, and governance.
Effective systems for : Research Extension Marketing. Supply Credit. Transportati on Governance Provision of necessary extension education to Farmers on : (1) New Technology (2) Wrong Practices (3) Solutions for Problems Increase agricultural Productivity and Achieve Agricultural Development Fig. (1) : Essentials For Improving Agricultural Productivity and Achieving Agric. Development
Next, we present some research findings on: 1. Farmers’ adoption of recommended farm practices for sugarcane production, 2. Examples of wrong practices adopted by farmers, and 3. Production and marketing problems for sugarcane growers in Qena and Aswan governorates.
Data collection techniques 1. Personal meetings and interviews with researchers, extension personnel, and farmers, 2. Questionnaire, and 3. Focus groups
First Adoption of recommended practices
New ideas raised and discussed last night. Many recommended practices included in previous research. Examples of these are:
Recommended Practices % of Non- Adopters 1. Unifying crop type Deep ploughing Laser levelling Addition of gypsum Ploughing after adding gypsum 90.8
Recommended Practices % of Non- Adopters 6. Furrowing rate (7furrows/2 k) Hot water treatment for seeds First irrigation after 3-5 days Developed surface irrigation Potassium fertilisation83.6
Recommended Practices % of Non- Adopters 11. Collecting cane tops Spraying the covered product with water Weed control Disease control Spraying of malathion83.6
Reasons for non-adoption of Recommended Practices Recommended Practices Reasons 1.Unifying crop type (1) differences in crops grown (2) agricultural liberalisation (3) weak relation between farmers and the cooperative 2. Deep ploughing (1) non-availability of mechanization (2) the soil improvement agency does not provide this service
Recommended Practices Reasons 3. Laser levelling (1) high cost (2) non-availability of machinery (3) the agricultural agencies of engineering, research, soil improvement, and mechanization do not implement laser levelling
Recommended Practices Reasons 4. Addition of gypsum & 5. Ploughing after addition (1)non-availability of gypsum (2) good quality of soil (3) lack of knowledge of farmers about gypsum 6. Furrowing rate for spring cultivation (7furrows/2k) (1) small size of land (2) non-availability of proper variety (3) non-availability of equipment
Recommended Practices Reasons 7. Hot water treatment for seeds (1) never heard of it (2) high cost (3) lack of experience (4) it needs much time (5) lack of trained labour 8. First irrigation after 3-5 days from planting. (1) wet soil (2) heavy soil
Recommended Practices Reasons 9. Developed surface irrigation (1) high cost (2) non-availability 10. Potassium fertilisation (1) high prices (2) shortage of fertilisers 11. Collecting cane tops and transfer them to the factory (1) small quantity of cane tops (2) high cost
Recommended Practices Reasons 12. Spraying the covered product with water (1) we implement instructions of the sugar factory (2) high cost 13. Weed control (1) small size of land (2) we eliminate weeds manually (3) we need weeds
Recommended Practices Reasons 14. Disease and insects control (1) high cost (2) lack of solar 15. Spraying of malathion (1)we spray if infected
Second Wrong practices adopted by farmers
Selecting poor variety Non adoption of laser levelling Improper furrowing Over irrigation Unbalanced fertilization Non-controlling of weeds
Non-controlling of insects & diseases Pre-harvest irrigation Incorrect cutting Late cutting Non-cleaning of product. Delay of transportation and delivery to the factory.
Third Production and marketing problems
Problems% Production problems: 1. Shortage and high costs of fertilizers Shortage and high costs of labour Differences in planting dates Non-growing in aggregates64.1
Problems% 5. Non-adoption of soil assessment Non-adoption of subsoil ploughing Non-adoption of levelling by laser Non-adoption of recommended furrowing Differences in crop rotation66.4
Problems% 10. Non-availability of new varieties late planting Shortage of irrigation water High costs of irrigation High costs of petroleum Products Over application of nitrate fertilizers 83.6
Problems% 16. Non-availability of phosphate fertilizers Spread of insects & diseases Spread of weeds Over irrigation Non-cleaning of irrigation and drainage canals 85.5
Problems% 21. Small and fragmented holdings Non-availability of harvesting mach Low productivity of C9 variety Non-availability of calcium sulphate Shortage of insecticides Weak extension services Spread of mice96.9
Problems% Marketing problems: 28. Shortage and high wages of labour Shortage of and irregular transportation High costs of transportation Frequent accidents by tractors Unsystematic cutting High costs of cutting97.3
Problems% 34. Delay of cutting Long period of cutting Long period of non-irrigation of crop Low price of product Steal of product during transportation Inaccuracy of weigh Long distance from factory91.2
Problems% 41. The contract is controlled by the company Delay of getting the value of product High interest rate of loans High added expenses to loans High ratio of defects Misuse of discounts from the value of product. 77.1
Section 3 Irrigation water issue
A. Water scarcity in Egypt and proposed policy options In mid nineties. The Agricultural Policy Reform Program through its Reform, Design & Implementation Unit (RDI) formed a sugarcaneWorking Group including experts from:
the Central Administration for Water Distribution, the Sugar Crops Research Institute, the Agriculture Engineering Research Institute, and others, to Review policy issues related to water scarcity and sugarcane plantation in Egypt.
The group conducted a study and Prepared A report (Keith, et. al., 1998). They Proposed three options which could lead to the optimal use of water in sugarcane plantations. These are:
Policy Option (1): Limit the sugarcane cultivated through the following actions: Restrict the cultivation of sugarcane; Reduce the sugarcane areas in accordance With any increase of productivity per fed.; Initiate public awareness campaign Concerning High water consuming crops.
Policy Option (2): Improving on-farm water efficiency and Sugarcane productivity through: Improved irrigation techniques (gated pipes) Enhance research programs to improve productivity Design and implement a pilot area to apply improved irrigation methods and laser land leveling.
Policy Option (3): Importing sugar This option includes: The local consumption of sugar could be supplemented by imports. This could reduce cane areas. Water saving will depend on how much sugar is imported. Expansion of sugar production should be through sugar beat cultivation.
B. Virtual water The water used in the production process of an agricultural or industrial product. For producing: 1 kg of grain we need 1000–2000 kg of water (1–2 m 3 ), 1 kg of cheese we need 5000–5500 kg of W. 1 kg of beef we need g of water
Virtual Water Trade: The concept of virtual water has been introduced in the early nineties. It can be applied to save water at world or regional level if water rich countries can produce And export water intensive products to poor water Countries. Virtual water may be called exogenous water.
There are two different approaches to quantify virtual water: Virtual water content = volume of water That was in reality used to produce the product. Virtual water content = amount of water that would have been required to produce the product at the place where it is needed
If the product can’t be produced in the country, water footprint can be a strong Tool to show people their impact on Natural resources. Limitations of the virtual water measure
C. Water footprint The water footprint shows the extent of Water Use in relation to consumption of people. The Water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by its inhabitants.
The internal water footprint is the volume of Water used from domestic water resources. The external water footprint is the volume Of Water used in other countries to Produce goods and services imported and consumed by the inhabitants of the Country
A water footprint can be calculated for any well-defined group of consumers (e.g., an individual, family, village, city, province, state or nation) or producers (e.g., a public organization, private enterprise or economic sector).
The water footprint concept was introduced in 2002 by Arjen Y. Hoekstra The concept was refined and accounting methods were established with a series of publications from two lead authors A.K. Chapagain and A.Y. Hoekstra
A water footprint consists of three components: blue, green, and grey: The blue water footprint is the volume of fresh water that evaporated from the global blue water resources (surface water and ground water) to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community.
The green water footprint is the volume of water evaporated from the global green water resources (rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture).
The grey water footprint is the volume of polluted water that associates with the production of all goods and services for the individual or community. The latter can be estimated as the volume of water that is required to dilute pollutants to such an Extent that the quality of the water remains at or above agreed water quality standards.
Fourth: Role of research and Extension In order to increase the productivity of sugar cane in the country, a great role should be played by the research centres to develop more innovations.
A great role also lies on the agricultural system to identify: (1) New technologies (2) Wrong practices (3) Problems facing farmers in each producing area, and provide farmers with necessary extension education to:
change wrong practices and adopt recommended practices in order to improve the productivity of sugar cane n Egypt