Presentation on theme: "Objective: To examine the life and presidency of Andrew Jackson."— Presentation transcript:
Objective: To examine the life and presidency of Andrew Jackson.
Andrew Jackson was born in a log cabin in the backwoods of the Carolinas in Jackson joined the Patriots during the American Revolution at the age of 13. Jackson’s Early Years (4:44) Jackson’s Early Years (4:44) (click on the second square, entitled “Early Years”) At the age of twenty, Jackson moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where he eventually becomes a wealthy attorney. Jackson and the Frontier of Tennessee (6:40) (click on the third square, entitled “Tennessee”) The Early Years
Jackson became the first person from Tennessee to serve in the House of Representatives and he also served as Senator before becoming President in Young Congressman Jackson (1:40) (click on the fourth square, entitled “Young Congressman Jackson”) After defeating the Creeks battle, they began to refer to Jackson as “Sharp Knife” after Jackson forced them to give up lands that had been guaranteed to them in earlier treaties with the U.S. As a young general in the army, President James Monroe sent Jackson to protect the border of Florida against the Seminole and Creek Indians. Florida Invasion (2:16) (click on the eighth square, entitled “Florida Invasion”) Entering Public Service
Jackson also gained fame for his military achievements during the War of 1812 leading American forces to victory over the British in the Battle of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson: Hero of New Orleans (3:41) Jackson earned the nickname, “Old Hickory” after a soldier said that he was “tough as hickory.”
Elections of 1824 and 1828 Presidential Candidate Electoral Votes Popular Votes John Quincy Adams 84108,740 Andrew Jackson99153,544 Henry Clay37 47,531 William H. Crawford41 40,856 Q: How many electoral votes were needed to win the election? + = 261 total electoral votes A: 131 electoral votes were needed to win the election. Q: How many electoral votes were needed to win the election? Choosing from the top three vote getters, the House of Representatives selected John Quincy Adams to be the sixth president of the United States. However, Jackson easily defeated Adams in the election of 1828 to become the first President from a western state. While earning the most popular votes in the presidential election of 1824, Jackson did not receive enough electoral votes to secure the victory.
Elections of 1824 and 1828 corrupt bargain- election goes to House – Henry Clay gives support to JQA then gets a Cabinet post Election of 1828 campaigned across the country (a new idea) National politics growing more democratic electors chosen by people, property restrictions dropped so more could vote)
Jacksonian Democracy Jackson was extremely popular with the “common man”, which he considered to be farmers, factory workers and western frontiersmen. Jackson's Personality and Legacy (3:37) Jackson’s belief in shifting the political power from the wealthy and educated elite to the “common man” was part of what became known as Jacksonian democracy. However, Jackson’s critics viewed his popularity as a danger sign that his presidency was coming to resemble that of a king.
As a result, Jackson earned yet another nickname. His opponents called him “King Andrew”, fearing Jackson’s intentions of strengthening the powers of the presidency. Used the veto power more than any other president before him
The Spoils System Upon assuming the Presidency, Jackson fired over 200 government workers and replaced them with his own Democratic supporters. A supporter of Jackson’s replied to criticism of the president by stating, “To the victor belong the spoils.” Spoils system – practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
Jackson appointed some of his most dedicated supporters with jobs within his Cabinet, although few of them were qualified for the job. Instead of relying on his Cabinet for advice, Jackson relied on a small group of unofficial advisors known as the “kitchen cabinet” since Jackson frequently met with them in the White House kitchen.
Native American Removal Jackson - Strong political base in the South 60,000 Native Americans lived here Indian Removal Act of 1830 – Cherokee, Creek, Chocktaw, Seminole, Chickasaw – land seized – Jackson believed it assimilation was impossible and it would take too many troops to keep white settlers off land
Native American Removal Supreme Court rules (Worcester v. GA) that GA can’t interfere with Native Americans Jackson ignored it! (Favored states here) “John Marshall made his decision; now let him enforce it!”
Trail of Tears – route traveled by thousands of Indians; starved, frozen, beaten, shot – over 4,000 died Trail of Tears
The Bank War Jackson believed that the Bank of the United States had too much power and served the needs of the rich over those of average Americans. For example, the Bank of the United States had the ability to limit the amount of money state banks were allowed to lend to small business owners such as farmers and merchants. Jackson felt particular anger towards the bank’s president, Nicolas Biddle.
Welcome, ladies and gentlemen, to THE BANK WAR! In the corner to my right, coming in with a combined total of 500 pounds, are… Henry Clay… Henry Clay Daniel Webster… Daniel Webster and Nicholas Biddle! Nicholas Biddle
And, in the corner to my left, the man known as “Sharp Knife” to the Creeks… Henry Clay Daniel Webster Nicholas Biddle “Old Hickory” to his admirers… and “King Andrew” to his detractors. Coming in at a lean, mean 155 pounds, may I introduce to you… the pride of the common man… the man who inspired the Democratic donkey… the man who… HEY! Introduce me already or I’ll fight you, too! No, that’s okay. Introducing President Andrew Jackson! Andrew Jackson
Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, political enemies of Jackson, devised a plan to exploit Jackson’s hatred of the Bank of the United States to help weaken him before the 1832 presidential election. Henry Clay Daniel Webster Hey, Daniel, I’ve got a plan that’s certain to hurt Jackson in 1832 and finally bring the Whig party into power! Okay, what have you got? Well, first we need to get the president of the Bank of the United States, Nicholas Biddle in here. He’ll help us. He and Jackson hate each other! Nicholas Biddle Hello, gentlemen. I came as quickly as I could!
Clay and Webster convinced Nicholas Biddle to submit his application to renew the charter for the Bank of the United States earlier than required. Henry Clay Daniel Webster What would that prove? Yes, thank you for coming. Mr. Biddle, I would like you to submit an application to renew the charter for the Bank of the United States. Nicholas Biddle Yeah, the current charter isn’t even set to expire soon!
Henry Clay Daniel Webster Nicholas Biddle I’m sure that’s exactly what he’ll do. Don’t be so short sighted! What do you think Jackson will do when you apply to renew the charter? I don’t know. Veto it?
Henry Clay Daniel Webster Nicholas Biddle By golly, I think it’ll work!! Precisely! The American people will be furious with him. He’ll never win reelection in 1832! (By the way, did I mention that I’m going to run for president in 1832?) Brilliant!! Clay, Webster and Biddle predicted that Jackson would veto the charter application, angering so many Americans that he would eventually lose his bid for reelection in 1832.
Henry Clay Daniel Webster Nicholas Biddle Oh, Mr. President! Here’s the application to renew the charter for the Bank of the United States! Andrew Jackson BANK CHARTER Fools! You know very well that I will never accept this! So, let me make sure not to disappoint you! VETO! Yes! He fell for it! Yes! The people will be furious and Jackson will never win reelection! Ha ha ha ha….(evil laugh) Oh, really? Fat chance! Bring it on, Clay! Bank War Summary (4:24)
Jackson fights the Bank in 1832 (1833 print) It turns out that Clay, Webster and Biddle underestimated Jackson’s popularity. Jackson defeated Clay in the election of Jackson also succeeded in destroying the Bank of the United States by having it shut down in 1836.