Presentation on theme: "Examples from French Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1Examples from French Revolution Stages of a RevolutionExamples from French Revolution
2Crane Brinton, The Anatomy of a Revolution Every revolution begins with the problems of the Old Regime1st stage = increasing dissatisfaction with the Old regime, spontaneous acts of protest and violence, overthrow2nd stage = honeymoon with moderate new government3rd stage = takeover of the extremists, loss of individualism, the government becomes violent and excessive4th stage = reestablishment of some sort of equilibrium, rights, etc., usually under a “strongman”
3Much like an illness, revolutions can also be studied in stages Example of a Metaphorical Representation: FEVER MODEL OF REVOLUTIONMuch like an illness, revolutions can also be studied in stages
5This stage in an illness is when the cause of the sickness first comes into contact with the individual, infecting them, but not yet causingany symptoms to present themselves.What would this stage be like in a revolution?In a revolution, this stage would involve the political, social, intellectual,or economic causes. In some cases, these causes could fester formany years before showing themselves in the form of actualrevolutionary action.---CONDITIONS FOR A REVOLUTION
6Conditions for a Revolution Estates SystemFrance on brink of bankruptcyEnlightenment Philosophes-Voltaire and Diderot jailed; banning and burning of booksAbbie Sieyes and “What is the Third Estate?”Bourgeoisie---Most AmbitiousNobles wanted to protect tax-exempt statusStorming of the BastilleLiberty, Equality, and Fraternity---wealth and power are distributed unequally---severe economic problems---a group of intellectuals criticizes the government---the government uses it power to maintain the status quo and repress dissents---the classes of people are in conflict, and the most ambitious are blocked from gaining power---different groups want different changes---people obtain weapons in a fairly large amounts---ideals are easy for people to believe in and become the slogan/war cry
7Detail From Triumph of Marat, Boilly, 1794 (Musee des Beaux-Arts) Liberty, Equality, FraternityThe French RevolutionPlay MarseillesDetail From Triumph of Marat, Boilly, 1794 (Musee des Beaux-Arts)
9Conditions---Government under the Old Regime: The Divine Right of Kings Monarch ruled by divine rightGod put the world in motionGod put some people in positions of powerPower is given by GodNo one can question GodNo one can question someone put in power by GodQuestioning the monarchy was blasphemy because it meant questioning God
10What the King DidAppointed the Intendants, the “petty tyrants” who governed France’s 30 districtsAppointed the people who would collect his taxes and carry out his lawsControlled justice by appointing judgesControlled the militaryCould imprison anyone at any time for any reason (blank warrants of arrest were called lettres de cachet)Levied all taxes and decided how to spend the moneyMade all lawsMade decisions regarding war and peace
11Conditions of a Revolution---Economic Problems Severe economic problems affected much of the countryFrance in debt, spending lavishly, borrowing money, and facing bankruptcyHailstorm and drought ruined harvest; harsh winter limited flour productionPeople hungry and angry; clergy and nobility no helpA Financial CrisisConditions of a Revolution---Economic Problems
12The Financial CrisisThe government of France, however, was bankrupt and was facing a serious financial crisis.The crisis resulted from:An inefficient and unfair tax structure, which placed the burden of taxation on those least able to pay, the third estateOutdated medieval bureaucratic institutionsA drained treasury which was the result of:Aiding the Americans during the American RevolutionLong wars with EnglandOverspending
13Economic Conditions under the Old Regime France’s economy was based primarily on agriculturePeasant farmers of France bore the burden of taxationPoor harvests meant that peasants had trouble paying their regular taxesCertainly could not afford to have their taxes raisedBourgeoisie often managed to gather wealthBut were upset that they paid taxes while nobles did not
14Conditions: France Is Bankrupt The king (Louis XVI) lavished money on himself and residences like VersaillesQueen Marie Antoinette was seen as a wasteful spenderGovernment found its funds depleted as a result of warsIncluding the funding of the American RevolutionDeficit spending – a government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenuesPrivileged classes would not submit to being taxed
15The Three EstatesBefore the revolution the French people were divided into three groups:The first estate: the clergyThe second estate: the nobilityThe third estate: the common people (bourgeoisie, urban workers, and peasants).Legally the first two estates enjoyed many privileges, particularly exemption from most taxation.
16Conditions of a Revolution: The Three Estates Varied widely in what they contributed in terms of work and taxesRoman Catholic clergyOne percent of the populationExempt from taxesOwned 10 percent of the landCollected rents and feesBishops and other clergy grew wealthyFirst EstateNobilityLess than 2 percent of the populationPaid few taxesOwned 20% of the landControlled much wealthHeld key positionsGovernmentMilitaryLived on country estatesSecond EstateLargest group—97% of the populationBourgeoisie—city-dwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionalsSans culottes—artisans and workersPeasants—poor with little hope, paid rents and feesPaid all the taxesHad no say in the govtThird Estate
17Conditions for a Revolution Social Structure of the Old RegimeFirst and Second EstatesFirst Estate = clergy (130,000)Second Estate = nobility (350,000)The Third EstateCommonersPeasants = 75-80% of the populationPeasants own 35-40% of the landSkilled artisans, shopkeepers, and wage earnersBourgeoisie (middle class)Own 20-25% of the landSimilarities between wealthier bourgeoisie and nobility
18The First EstateThe first estate, the clergy, consisted of rich and poor. There were very wealthy abbots, members of the aristocracy who lived in luxury off of wealthy church lands.There were poor parish priests, who lived much like the peasants.
19The Second EstateThe second estate, the nobility, inherited their titles and got their wealth from the land.Some members of the nobility had little money, but had all the privileges of noble rank.However, most enjoyed both privileges and wealth.
21The NobilityWith the exception of a few liberals, the nobility wanted greater political influence for themselves but nothing for the third estate.
22Where is the Money?In this cartoon from the time, Louis is looking at the chests and asks “Where is the tax money?“The financial minister, Necker, looks on and says “The money was there last time I looked."The nobles and clergy are sneaking out the door carrying sacks of money, saying "We have it."
23The Third EstateThe third estate, the common people, was by far the largest group in France.Everyone who was not a member of the first or second estates was a member of the third. It included:Wealthy merchants, whose wealth rivaled that of the nobilityDoctors and lawyersShopkeepersThe urban poorThe peasants who worked the land.
24Conditions: The Three Estates PopulationPrivilegesExemptionsBurdensFirstCirca 130,000High-ranking clergyCollected the titheCensorship of the pressControl of educationKept records of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Catholic faith held honored position of being the state religion (practiced by monarch and nobility)Owned 20% of the landPaid no taxesSubject to Church law rather than civil lawMoral obligation (rather than legal obligation) to assist the poor and needySupport the monarchy and Old RegimeSecondCirca 110,000NoblesCollected taxes in the form of feudal duesMonopolized military and state appointmentsThirdCirca 25,000,000Everyone else: artisans, bourgeoisie, city workers, merchants, peasants, etc., along with many parish priestsNonePaid all taxesTithe (Church tax)Octrot (tax on goods brought into cities)Corvée (forced road work)Capitation (poll tax)Vingtiéme (income tax)Gabelle (salt tax)Taille (land tax)Feudal dues for use of local manor’s winepress, oven, etc.
25What does this contemporary political cartoon say about conditions in France under the Old Regime?
26The Old RegimeThis cartoon from the era of the French Revolution depicts the third estate as a person in chains, who supports the clergy and nobility on his back.The Third Estate
28Conditions of a Revolution: The Old Regime The people inFrench societywere nottreated equally.The system of feudalism inFrance wasknown as TheOld Regime. Citizens weredivided intothree classesor estates.
30Conditions of a Revolution: Causes and Attitudes The EnlightenmentAnglophile feeling in FranceThe American RevolutionFrench system’s lack of changeLouis XVI clung to AbsolutismKing’s response to the poorClass resentmentEconomic problems
31Conditions of a Revolution: Why revolt? The Enlightenment movement spread ideas everyone should be equal.The people of the 3rd estate liked that idea.Conditions of a Revolution: Why revolt?The French economy was failing.Taxes were high, profits were low and food supplies were short.King Louis the XVI was weak and unconcerned about the plight of the third estate.
32Louis XVILouis XVI was an awkward, clumsy man who had a good heart but was unable to relate to people on a personal level.He often appeared unfeeling and gruff.He was insecure and seems to have disliked being King of France.When one of his ministers resigned, he was heard to remark, "Why can't I resign too?"
33Marie AntoinetteMarie Antoinette, in her early years as Queen, was flighty and irresponsible.She spent huge amounts on clothes, buying a new dress nearly every other day.Being Austrian, she was terribly unpopular in France and had few friends.
34The French RoyaltyThe royal family lived in luxury at the Palace of Versailles.Play Vivaldi’s Four SeasonsHall of Mirrors
35The Palace of Versailles The King and Queen of France lived in luxury and splendor at the magnificent Palace of Versailles outside of Paris.
36Conditions of a Revolution: Louis XVI attempted to tax the nobles. The nobles forced the king to call a meeting of the Estates-General an assembly of delegates from each of the three estates.
37Calling the Estates General The King attempted to solve the financial crisis by removing some of the nobles' tax exemptions.However, the nobility saw themselves as special, with better blood, and entitled to all of their class privileges.The Parlement, a judicial organization controlled by the nobility, invoked its powers to block the King's move.He was forced reluctantly to call a meeting of the Estates General in 1788.
38The Estates GeneralWhen the Estates General met, each estate solemnly marched into the hall at Versailles.The third estate dressed all in black, the nobility dressed in all their finery, and the clergy dressed in full regalia.
39To Vote by Head or by Order The delegates of the third estate insisted that the three orders meet together and that the vote be taken by head, rather than by order.Since there were far more delegates from the third estate, this plan would give them a majority.The King refused to grant their request.The third estate refused to budge.
40This stage in an illness is when sickness starts to affect the person in observable ways. Temperature may rise. A cough might presentitself. The individual might become weak and queasy.What would this stage be like in a revolution?In a revolution, this stage would be the first to involve directaction resulting from the social, political, intellectual, or economiccauses of the incubation stage. This stage might involve the publicationof works calling for a change, street level riots by the common people,or more direct attempts at changing the society.
41Second Stage: Critics of Old Regime The first indication of rising discontent is the activity of writers who denounce existing conditions and satirize common practices. The writers provide new goals and ideas.Enlightenment Philosophes like Voltaire, Montesquieu, Diderot, and RousseauAbbie Sieyes and “What is the Third Estate”Political Pamphlets in the Coffeehouses of Paris
42Second Stage---Philosophy of the French Revolution: The Enlightenment (Age of Reason) Scientists during the Renaissance had discovered laws that govern the natural worldIntellectuals – philosophes – began to ask if natural laws might also apply to human beingsParticularly to human institutions such as governmentsPhilosophes were secular in thinking – they used reason and logic, rather than faith, religion, and superstition, to answer important questionsUsed reason and logic to determine how governments are formedTried to figure out what logical, rational principles work to tie people to their governmentsQuestioned the divine right of kings
43Great Britain’s government limiting the king’s power Critics-Second StageInspiring new ideas from Enlightenment philosophersGreat Britain’s government limiting the king’s powerAmerican colonists rebelled successfully against British kingNew ideas changed government and society in other countriesEnlightenment Ideas
45What Is the Third Estate? "What is the Third Estate?" asked Abbe Sieyes. "Everything!“ This liberal clergyman rallied the commoners of France to assert their power and take charge of the Estates General.At his suggestion, they declared themselves the National Assembly and invited the other two orders to join them.The next day they found their meeting hall locked.At the suggestion of one of the delegates they moved to a nearby indoor tennis court.
46Debating the Course of Action There they debated their course of action.Some wanted to return to Paris to the protection of the people.Mounier, not ready to take such a revolutionary step, suggested instead that they swear an oath of allegiance not to disband until a constitution had been created for France
47Third StagePublic dissatisfaction culminates in riots, assassinations, and other acts of violence.Bread Riots in ParisStorming of the BastilleGreat FearWomen’s Bread March
49Third Stage---Riots and Revolts Events at BastilleJuly 14, 1789Municipal government trying to get armsRevolts in the countryside
50Conditions in ParisConditions were poor in Paris for the common people.The price of bread was high and supplies were short due to harvest failures.Rumors spread that the King and Queen were responsible for the shortagesThen French troops marched to the capital.Rumors spread quickly among the already restless mobs that the King was intending to use them against the people.The dismissal of the Finance Minister Necker, who was popular with the third estate, ignited the spark.
51Mobs Search for Weapons Mobs roamed in search of weapons.Although some muskets were found when they broke into a public hospital for wounded soldiers, there was no ammunition.The ammunition was stored in the Bastille.
52Third Stage---Uprising in Paris People of Paris seized weapons from the BastilleJuly 14, 1789Parisians organized their own government which they called the CommuneSmall groups – factions – competed to control the city of ParisUprising spread throughout FranceNobles were attackedRecords of feudal dues and owed taxes were destroyedMany nobles fled the country – became known as émigrésLouis XVI was forced to fly the new tricolor flag of France
54July 14, 1789 – This event symbolized the French Revolution The Bastille was a prison for debtors and a symbol of the oppression of the Third Estate.Spurred by rumors– a Paris mob surrounded the Bastille.Governor of prison and mayor of Paris were killed and their heads were mounted on pikes and paraded through the city.Storming the Bastille
55The Storming of the Bastille The storming of Bastille stared by a rumor about Louis XVI planning a massacre on the France citizens.They had rifles but no gunpowder, they need to get prepared.On July 14, 1789 a mob was started at a royal fortress (prison) in Paris, called Bastille, they went there to get ammunition.They has succeeded and the governor had surrender, but the mob killed the governor any way.The France people had the Bastille under their control.The cry of “We want the Bastille!” went up among the crowd.This great fall of the Bastille was a symbolic act of revolution that the power of the king could be challenged.The people of Paris worked together in this event and won.They spoke out true words and demonstrated that they too had a voice in the government.That is why this event was a rise in democracy.King Louis XVI asked an aide, “Is this a revolt?” The answer came swiftly: “No, sire. It is a revolution.”
56The Storming Of Bastille On July 14, 1789, the Storming Of The Bastille took place. It happened when members of the 3rd estate into the Bastille, which is a French prison, looking for gunpowder.The Bastille fell into the hands of the citizens. The fall of the Bastille became a symbolic act of revolution towards the French.This was a step towards democracy, because an important building went from the control of the king to the control of the citizens.Yah!!Lets go
59The Storming of the Bastille On July 14, 1789, the mob, joined by some of the King's soldiers, stormed the Bastille.The commander of the Bastille, de Launay, attempted to surrender, but the mob would not accept it.He was killed as they poured through the gates.No guard was left alive.
61Liberated Prisoners Later in the day the prisoners were released. There were only seven:Two were convicted forgers.One was a loose-living aristocrat put in prison by his own father.Nevertheless it was a great symbolic event, one which is still celebrated in France every year.
63The increased mob activity in Paris resulted in the formation of a permanent committee to keep order.This organized popular force broke into a royal armory and collected arms and then stormed the Bastille, incited by a rousing speech delivered by Camille Desmoulins on July 12, 1789.He was known as "The Lantern Lawyer" for is advocacy of hanging aristocrats on the light posts.Although the Bastille only had seven prisoners in it when it was liberated by the Parisian mob, the fall of the prison became a symbol of triumph over despotism.It also signified the end of the authority of Louis XVI, because he was no longer able to control the political tides of France.
64The Great FearBy the end of July and beginning of August there were riots in the countryside.Peasants burned their nobles' chateaux and destroyed documents which contained their feudal obligations. It was called "The Great Fear."
65It was called "The Great Fear" and spread quickly throughout France. Between June and the beginning of August there were riots in the countryside. Peasants burned their nobles' chateaux, monasteries and buildings which housed public records.They particularly targeted documents which contained records of their feudal obligations.It was called "The Great Fear" and spread quickly throughout France.
67Women’s March to Versailles On October 4, 1789, a crowd of women, demanding bread for their families, marched toward Versailles.When they arrived, soaking wet from the rain, they demanded to see "the Baker," "the Baker's wife," and "the Baker's boy".The King met with some of the women and agreed to distribute all the bread in Versailles to the crowd.
68The March on Versailles Imagine yourself living your life in France, watching your home land becoming a wreck and scared if the kings men might terrorize you.You sit there worried about any sudden massacre and the price of bread goes up and your children start to starve because you can’t afford it.You are not just going to sit there your going to do something about it.Well, this same event occur on October 1789 were infuriated women from Paris march 12 miles to Versailles were the king and queen were at.Most of the woman were terribly angry with the kind of government and the way they treated them.No one care. “let them eat cake” replied the queen. The French citizens blamed it all on the monarchy. The mob killed two guard at the palace and forced the king and queen out of their home, never to see it again.This event relates to the rise in democracy because before this massacre France used to be an absolute monarchy.Now France was out of control, the king wasn’t in charge, the people were. If they wanted this or they disagreed with that, they fought for their rights. Know the king didn’t control France, the people were in control of the state.Kill the no good king that doesn't even spare a piece of bread for this country!No more starving, off with his head!
69March On VersaillesIn October of 1789, 6,000 Parisian women marched towards the Palace of Versailles.The women were furious at the King and Queen over the rising bread prices.They rioted and said they wanted Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette to go to Paris.Louis finally agreed to go to Paris, and he promised he would get bread for the women.He and his family would never see Versailles again.This was a step towards democracy, because women, who supposedly had hardly any power, got the King and Queen to leave their palace and go to Paris.We want bread! We want bread!We want bread!Go to Paris Louis and Marie!
70The Women's March October 5, 1789 Women from neighborhoods around the Bastille, gathered10,000 people (mostly women) walked to VersaillesGoal: to convince King to provide them with breadLouis greeted the women and promised them breadIn late July, serious unrest called the “Great Fear” broke out in rural areas. Rumors reported an impending famine and told of bandits, in the pay of the nobles, roaming the countryside attacking peasants. Driven by fear and anger, the peasants armed themselves and prepared to fight the ruthless bandits. In addition, the peasants attacked many manor houses, often hoping to destroy the records of dues and services owned by the lords. New of these disorders alarmed many of the delegates in the National Assembly.The events in Paris and the disorder in the countryside forced the National Assembly into action. On the night of August 4, the nobles and clergy offered to end tax exemptions of the privileged classes, payment of feudal dues by the peasants, the tithe, and all class distinctions. It would prove to be the most sweeping and radical legislative session of the whole French Revolution.On August 27, 1789, the National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, which embotdied many of the ideas of the philosophes. It declared that the authority of a government is derived from the people; that all citizaenx should be equal before the law,; that all citizens are entitled to a voice in making the nation’s law; and that the purpose of government should be the protection of the natural rights of men to liberty, properyt, security, and resistance to oppression. Freedom of speech, press, and religion should be guaranteed to all. The Declaration, along with the English Bill of Rights, Declaration of Independence and US Constitution, ranks as one of the great documents of modern times.In Paris new tensions were building. A rumor circulated that at a banquet in Versailles, newly arrived soldiers had treated the tricolor with disrespect. On October 5, an angry mob of some six or seven thousand women set off for Versailles dragging a cannon and brandishing whatever makeshift weapons they could lay their hands on. They were followed by Lafayette and 20,0000 National Guardsmen. They reached Versailles in the evening and invaded the National Assembly, calling for bread and punishment of those who had insulted the national flag. Then the women marched to Versailles and gained entrance to the elegant apartment of the queen. The king finally agreed to the demands of the women and under their escort journeyed with his family to Paris. Henceforth, the king and his family would be confined to Paris, “more like prisoners than Princes.”
71October, 1789: A crowd of Parisian women marched to Versailles to demand King Louis XVI give out free bread during a bread shortage. After camping out at Versailles overnight, the mob decided to take Louis XVI back to Paris.They insisted that the royal family return to Paris where, in fact, they would find themselves under virtual house arrest.
72The King’s Return to Paris Under pressure from the National Guard, the King also agreed to return to Paris with his wife and children.It was the last time the King saw Versailles.
73Fourth StageThe ruling group is intimidated into making repeated concessions until the power is transferred.Meeting of the Estates-GeneralTennis Court OathFormation of the National AssemblyFormation of Constitutional MonarchyDeclaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
74Fourth Stage: From Estates-General to a National Assembly 300 delegates each to the First and Second Estate600 delegates to the Third EstateStrong legal and urban presenceCahiers de doléancesEstates General meets May 5, 1789Question of voting by order or headAbbé Sieyès “What is the Third Estate?”National AssemblyConstituted, June 17Tennis Court Oath, June 20Intervention of the Common PeopleAttack on the Bastille, July 14Peasant rebellions, July 19-August 3Great Fear
75Estates General Meeting Louis XVL: “We have come to disguise the economy of France.We basically have no money, sorry.Estates General MeetingOn May 15, 1789 the first Estates General in 175 years was called by Louis XVI of France. The enlightenment ideas, final crisis,and bad leadership by Louis XVL cause France to face bankruptcy. When France was bankrupted Louis tired to tax the aristocrats, the second estate, but instead they forced him to call the Estate Generals.The Estates General meeting has contributed to the rise in democracy. In a democracy every one is treated equal and they can speak out for their thoughts or ideas. The Third Estate didn’t just sit around and let the other two estates control their lives. They stool up and declared their rights. Soon they change the rules of the Estate General and they could voted by order.The Estates –General was was an assembly of representatives formed by all 3 of the social class in France. It was held at the place of king Louis the XVI, Versailles. The estates had to follow the medieval rules but these rules were unfair to the third estate because it only allowed one vote for each estate. Most of the population was in the third estate. They kept on insisting for a change. They were the people , “What is the third Estate? Everything.” Abbe Sieyes spoke out. He suggested that they should have a Nation Assembly that was made up of the delegates from the third Estates. They voted to establish the National Assembly on June France was a representative government.
76In the past one vote was cast for each estate. Fourth Stage---Making Concessions: Representative Government for FranceThe meeting of the Estates-General began with arguments on how to count votes.In the past one vote was cast for each estate.The Third Estate now wanted each delegate to have a vote. They broke with the others and voted to rename themselves The National Assembly.The members of the National Assembly claimed to represent all of the people. The king disagreed. The 3rd Estate delegates were locked out of their meeting.
77Making Concessions: The Meeting of The Estates General The meeting of the Estates General was called for the first time in 175 years.It was called by Louis XVI because of France’s financial crisis. In the Estates General they vote by order which means each of three estates would get one vote and they would vote in order of estates first estate 1st, second estate 2nd, and third estate 3rd..The Third Estate was angry because they realized that they should get more then one vote since they made up 98% of the population.So they threatened to leave and they did. This was not a step towards democracy because one group was being ripped off and the first two estates still could do anything they wanted.As you know the reason I called all of you here is because France is in financial trouble.No thanks to you and your family
78Making Concessions: (1789-1793) King desired new tax to stabilize economyEstates General (3 estates)Not met for 150 yearsNeeded to meetCertified by Parlement (high court)Election in early 1789Finally met in Spring 17893rd Estate walked out
79Mounier’s Suggestion“Let us swear to God and our country that we will not disperse until we have established a sound and just constitution, as instructed by those who nominated us.” M. Mounier
80The Tennis Court OathThe delegates agreed and all but one of the 578 delegates signed it.Their oath is known as the Tennis Court Oath. It said: "The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom... decrees that all members of this assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate... until the constitution of the kingdom is established on firm foundations..." June 20, 1789
81Tennis Court OathThe Third Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly.Louis XVI responded by locking the Third Estate out of the meeting.The Third Estate relocated to a nearby tennis court where its members vowed to stay together and create a written constitution for France.On June 23, 1789, Louis XVI relented. He ordered the three estates to meet together as the National Assembly and vote, by population, on a constitution for France.
82The Tennis Court OathMounier warned them not to give up on writing a constitution. Mounier also proposed that the Third Estate should adopt an oath of allegiance.The Tennis Court Oath started with the National Assembly wanting a change in the government of France’s absolute monarchy.They were willing to meet at Versailles in the Menus Plaisirs, but the room was closed. They were determined, they broke down a door, which was an indoor tennis court.There they pledged not to leave until they had finish constructing a new constitution. That was called the Tennis Court Oath.The constitution they created was finished on September It limited the kings power and gave most of the power to the legislative Assembly.This was a step into the rise in democracy because they made a constitution, that wanted to keep a true order on the monarchy. The 550 people and representatives that took the oath got an equal say. When Louis signed the constitution he still had the executive power to enforce the laws.This agreement is like the kind of democracy in the US. The legislative, judicial, and executive branches can announce the law but the president gets to decides if it becomes a real law or not.
84This is where they took the Tennis Court Oath-not to leave until a constitution was created. This started the beginning of the political French Revolution. Notice the fluttering curtains representing the winds of change.
85Tennis Court OathIn June 1789 the 3rd estate threatened to separate from the Estates General, if they didn’t get more power.When nothing was done the 3rd estate left the Estates General and went to some tennis courts. There they formed the National Assembly and they pledged to not leave the tennis courts until an agreement was made.It wasn’t until 1791 two years after they pledged that a constitution was signed. It was called the Constitution of 1791.This event represented a step towards democracy because a group of people realized that they were getting ripped off, and they did something about it.Yes I Pledge I will stay hear until we have our wayWe all should pledge to stay
87King Asks Third Estate to Disperse Hearing of the oath, the King called a meeting of all three orders.At the end of the meeting he ordered the third estate to disperse.They refused.One of the delegates declared that "We are here at the will of the people, and shall not stir from our seats unless forced to do so by bayonets."
88Third Estate TriumphsThe King was unwilling to use force and eventually ordered the first and second estates to join the new National Assembly.The third estate had won.
89Fifth Stage Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen The reformers carry out their ideas.Declaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenAugust 4 DecreesCivil Constitution of the Clergy
90Just before midnight, Louis announced his acceptance of the Proposal made on August 4 by the nobles and clergy to the National AssemblyEnd tax exemptions of the privileged classesEnd payment of feudal dues by the peasantsEnd the titheEnd all class distinctionsKing and his family would be confined to Paris from this point on.
91Fifth Stage---Reforms Carried Out: Creating a New Nation Feudal dues eliminatedDeclaration laid out “liberty, equality, fraternity”Inspired by the English Bill of Rights, American Declaration of Independence, and the writings of Enlightenment philosophersMen are born equal and remain equal under the lawThe rights did not extend to womenLegislating New RightsLouis tried to protect his throneAngered the common peoplePrices still high; mob broke into the palace demanding breadRoyal family seized; National Assembly took bolder stepsPassed laws against the church, clergy, and public employeesSome outraged by actionsRestrictions on Power
92Fifth Stage---Reforms: The Decree Abolishing the Feudal System The abolition of the feudal system, which took place during the famous night session of August 4-5, 1789, was caused by the reading of a report on the misery and disorder which prevailed in the provinces.The report declares that " Letters from all the provinces indicate that property of all kinds is a prey to the most criminal violence; on all sides chateaux are being burned, convents destroyed, and farms abandoned to pillage.The taxes, the feudal dues, all are extinct; the laws are without force, and the magistrates without authority.“With the hope of pacifying and encouraging the people, the Assembly, in a fervor of enthusiasm and excitement, straightway abolished many of the ancient abuses.
93Fifth Stage---Changes under the National Assembly Abolishment of guilds and labor unionsAbolition of special privilegesConstitution of 1791Declaration of the Rights of ManEquality before the law (for men)Many nobles left France and became known as émigrésReforms in local governmentTaxes levied based on the ability to pay
94The Night of August 4The National Assembly responded to the Great Fear.On the Night of August 4, 1789, one by one members of the nobility and clergy rose to give up:Feudal duesSerfdomThe titheHunting and fishing rightsPersonal privileges.In one night feudalism was destroyed in France.
96Medallion commemorating the Night of August 4, the end of feudalism in France
97On August 26, the Declaration was formally adopted by the National Assembly. It outlined man’s natural rights. The purpose of such a Declaration was to rally the country and to add support to the National Assembly.Barely 300 words in length, it could be printed cheaply on one side of a single sheet of paper. The Declaration appeared all over France and was subsequently translated into every major European language. As a symbol, it became the gospel of the new French social order.This text, which formed the basis of the United Nations Declaration of 1948, has a universal value extending beyond cultural, religious, political, ethnic, economic and social differences, and it thereby establishes the inalienable rights and duties of every human being.Reforms: Declaration of the Rights of Man August 1789 This revolutionary statement guaranteed the rights such as liberty and property.
98The National AssemblyThe new National Assembly created the historic and influential document The Declaration of the Rights of Man, which stated the principle that all men had equal rights under the law.This document has remained the basis for all subsequent declarations of human rights. (Compare The Universal Declaration of Human Rights).
99Declaration of the Rights of Man "Men are born free and equal in their rights....These rights are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression.The fundamental source of all sovereignty resides in the nation.The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to take part personally, or through representatives, in the making of the law."The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
100Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, Aug. 26, 1789
101Declaration of the Rights of Man Freedom of religionFreedom of speechFreedom of the pressGuaranteed property rights“Liberty, equality, fraternity!”Right of the people to create lawsRight to a fair trial
102The Civil Constitution of the Clergy The National Assembly resolved the immediate financial crisis by:Seizing church landsPutting the church under the control of the State with The Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Abbe Sieyes fiercely resisted the passage of this legislation and accused the other delegates of "bourgeois envy."But he was overruled.
104The Oath of AllegianceClergymen were required to swear an oath to the new constitution. Many refused to swear the oath and were placed under arrest.The measure was very controversial to a nation of Catholics and drew support away from the new government.
105Reforms---Burning the Pope in Effigy after the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
106Revolution Spreads to Common People The Revolution, instigated by the nobility, and set in motion by the bourgeoisie, now spread to the common people.
107This is the critical stage in an illness where two things can happen. The individual either breaks the fever after a heightened stageof illness or the individual gets progressively worse and does notrecover.What would this stagebe like in a revolution?Crisis StageIn a revolution, this stage would be the make or break part of thestruggle. It may involve conflict where sides for and againstthe revolution compete. This competition could take the form ofdebate or full-scale war. Successful revolutions survive this stage.Those that do not are usually considered failed rebellions.
108Sixth Stage Legislative Assembly is splintered into political parties Divisions among the revolutionariesBecomes Middle Class versus Peasants/Sans CulottesConservative, Liberals, and RadicalsPeople are forced to choose between faith and the revolutionFrance is fighting against European powers who want to stop the revolutionThe new reforms divide the nation into rival groups.
109Two Radical GroupsDuring the constitutional monarchy there were two radical groups vying for power, the Girondins and the Jacobins.Although both groups were more radical in their views than the moderates who had designed the constitutional monarchy, the Girondins were somewhat less radical.In late 1791, the Girondins first emerged as an important power in France.
110United in their ViewsAt first the two parties were united in their views.The Girondins were concerned about the plight of the blacks in France's colonies and were instrumental in passing legislation granting equal rights to all free blacks and mulattoes. They wanted the declaration of war against Austria in early 1792 in the hopes that a show of strength would give them leverage with the King.
111Jean-Paul MaratWhen Jean-Paul Marat, a Jacobin journalist who showed little regard for the truth, was arrested for attacking Girondins, the people of Paris turned even more toward the Jacobins. The people loved Marat and he seemed to love them too.When he was acquitted of the charge, the crowds swarmed around him, scooped him up on their shoulders and carried him to the Convention, cheering all the way.
112The members divided into groups. A Divided Nation: The Legislative Assembly replaced the National Assembly in the fall of 1791.The members divided into groups.The Royalist fugitives who were aristocrats or members of the clergy who fled France during the revolution of 1789 were called émigrés.Another group, Sans-Culottes (French for without knee-breeches) were Parisian wage-earners.Later, it to referred to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army. Generally to the extremists of the Revolution.Their support came from domestic crises, such as shortages of bread, or political injustice.
113The Flight to VarennesAlthough the King reluctantly accepted the new constitution, he could not accept all the reforms (e.g., the Civil Constitution of the Clergy) and decided to leave the country.On June 20, 1791, the King and his family set out for the border in a carriage.The King was disguised as a steward and his son was wearing a dress.At the border village of Varennes, he was recognized and eventually apprehended.
115The Paris MobThe news of the King's flight destroyed the last of the King's popularity with the people of Paris.The popular press portrayed the royal family as pigs and public opinion plummeted.Increasingly there were demands for an end to the monarchy and the creation of a new kind of government, a republic.
117The San-CulottesAt the beginning of the revolution, the working men of Paris allowed the revolutionary bourgeoisie to lead them.But by 1790 the sans-culottes were beginning to be politically active in their own right.They were called sans-culottes (literally, without trousers) because the working men wore loose trousers instead of the tight knee breeches of the nobility.Eventually sans culottes came to refer to any revolutionary citizen.
119Simple SolutionsThough the activity of the sans-culottes had been growing, after the King's flight to Varennes, they were spurred to greater political activity.They were uninterested in the complexities of politics, and looked for simple solutions.
120Attack on the Tuileries The royal family was living under house arrest in the Tuileries Palace.An angry mob got into the building on June 20, 1792, and found their way to the King. The crowd shouted insults and was in an ugly mood.The King remained calm and obediently put on the red cap of liberty (a symbol of revolution) at the mob's insistence.
121Mob placing the red cap of liberty on the King's head at the Tuileries
122Pressure from the Paris Mob When the mob thrust a bottle of wine at the King, he drank a toast to the health of the nation but refused to change his position on the clergy.Under the new constitutional monarchy, he had exercised his veto of a proposal to punish priests who refused to support the changes to the church.A religious man, the King felt it would violate his conscience to agree to the mob's demands.The incident ended without bloodshed but by August the mob was back.
124The End of Constitutional Monarchy On August 10, 1792, the mob attacked the Tuileries again.This time the royal family barely escaped with their lives.The king's guards were killed and the King and his family fled to the protection of the Assembly.The constitutional monarchy was over.
125Spreading the Gospel of Revolution The French Revolution took on the character of a religious crusade.It was not enough to have a revolution at home. The gospel of revolution must be spread to the rest of Europe.France declared war on Prussia and Austria and proclaimed that it advanced the cause of liberty.
126Sixth Stage---A Divided Nation: Formation of a New Government In 1791, the Legislative Assembly is formed. Citizens gained broad voting rights, but rights were not universal. Constitution restricted power of king and ended distinctions of birth. King and queen feared they would be harmed.Austria and Prussia warned against harming monarchsAustrian army defeats FrenchFinancial strain of war, food shortages, and high pricesKing blamed; action demandedForeign PowersAugust 10, 1792 royal family imprisoned by mobRadical faction took charge with National ConventionMonarchy abolished; France declared a republicEnd of MonarchyFrench revolutionary troops won the Battle of Valmy. New French republic held ground against Europe’s Old Order.
127Sixth Stage---A Divided Nation: Radical Revolution Disillusionment of the lower class (inflation)Girondists (moderates) had no strong leaderFrance drawn into war with EuropeFailure in wars (1st coalition, )Moderates removed as leaders of National AssemblyCounter-revolutionsKing and queen arrestedJacobins (radicals) takecontrol
128The French FlagThe Marquis de Lafayette, commander of the new National Guard, combined the colors of the King (white) and the colors of Paris (blue and red) for his guardsmen's uniforms and from this came the Tricolor, the new French flag.
129The Marseillaise CHORUS Arise you children of our motherland, Oh now is here our glorious day ! Over us the bloodstained banner Of tyranny holds sway ! Of tyranny holds sway ! Oh, do you hear there in our fields The roar of those fierce fighting men ? Who came right here into our midst To slaughter sons, wives and kin.CHORUSTo arms, oh citizens ! Form up in serried ranks ! March on, march on ! And drench our fields With their tainted blood!
130The September Massacres The country was embroiled in a foreign war.The new government had declared war against the powerful Austria and in the beginning it did not go well for France.Complicating matters was the fact that counter-revolutionary Frenchmen were working with Austria in the hopes of turning back the revolution.In France people saw counter-revolutionaries under every rock.
131Georges-Jacques Danton Georges-Jacques Danton, a revolutionary leader and a powerful orator, rose in the Assembly on September 2nd 1792 and boomed out these memorable words in his deep bass voice: "When the tocsin sounds, it will not be a signal of alarm, but the signal to charge against the enemies of our country. . . To defeat them, gentlemen, we need boldness, and again boldness, and always boldness; and France will then be saved."
132Georges-Jacques Danton: "Boldness and again boldness, and always boldness"
133Let the blood of the traitors flow Danton probably meant boldness in fighting the war against Austria. But many took his words to refer to enemies within France.The radical press took up the cry, "Let the blood of the traitors flow," and within hours of Danton's speech the streets of France did indeed run with blood.By September 7, over 1000 were dead.
134Seventh StageRadicals seize power and attempt to impose their views on the nation.Jacobin Political Party seizes power.Leaders are Robespierre, Marat, and Danton.Form National Convention and Committee of Public Safety-Reign of TerrorUse of GuillotineExecute the King and QueenRemove Christianity
135The Rise of the Jacobins When the constitutional monarchy fell and the King was put on trial for treason in December, the Girondins argued against his execution.The Jacobins thought he needed to die to ensure the safety of the revolution.When the Jacobins were successful the tide turned against the Girondins.The Jacobins in the National Convention had 22 Girondin leaders arrested and executed. The Jacobins had won.
136The Death of MaratA final Girondin blow was struck, however, when Charlotte Corday, a Girondin sympathizer, gained entrance to Marat's bath and stabbed him.Marat immediately became a martyr to the revolution. He was given a hero's funeral and the procession lasted 7 hours.
138Seventh Stage: The Radical Revolution National Convention, September 1792Universal male suffrageAbolition of the monarchy, September 21Domestic CrisisFactionsGirondinsThe MountainExecution of Louis XVI, January 21, 1793CounterrevolutionForeign CrisisMilitary lossesA Nation in ArmsMobilization of the nation
141Map 19.2: The French Conquests during the Revolutionary Wars
142Seventh Stage: The Reign of Terror & Its Aftermath Committee of Public Safety and Reign of TerrorJuly 1793-July 1794Vendée“Republic of Virtue”Price controlsWomenDechristianization and a New CalendarNew calendarEquality and SlaveryRevolt in Saint DominigueDecline of the Committee of Public SafetyExecution of Maximilien Robespierre, July 28, 1794
143The Reign of TerrorKILL, KILL, they can’t feel a thing. It don’t hurt.Everything was out of control in France.Still many tried to get power and slowly Robespierre got it.He wanted to destroy everything from the past, like things from the monarchy and nobility.He wanted to built a republic.People with names of kings changes it to less political one, they took Sunday out of the calendar, and even closed all the churches in France.Soon he ruled as a dictator and he was the one who choose who was the enemy of the republic.Many thought he had gone crazy, killing people after people. He had been on the Committee of Public Safety.He had killed his own people because of treason, their thought were less radical then Robespierre.Most of the death were done by a simile and easier beheading machine called the guillotine.Any one who apposed the revolution was sentenced to death.From July 1793 to July 1794 the time period was called the Reign of Terror and 3,000 people died, most who were peasants.Robespierre had gone mad! I just had an old pair of deck cards. Please don’t kill me!!This event doesn’t lead to the rising of democracy because one individual is forcing the people to do what Robespierre thought was the right idea. They were just pushed around like if they didn’t have tongues to declare that they had right too.
144Other Parting Reforms Passed by the Convention Adopted the metric systemDealt the final blow to feudalism by abolishing primogeniture (the system whereby the oldest son inherited all of his father’s estate)Drew up a comprehensive system of lawsEnded debt imprisonmentEnded slavery in France’s coloniesEstablished a nationwide system of public education
145THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY Started THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY RobespierreThe French lawyer and political leader, who became one of the most influential figures of the French Revolution and the principal exponent of the Reign of Terror.THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETYStarted THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETYStarted by Robespierre in the summer of 1793, which decided who should be considered enemies of the republic.They would often try people in the morning, while having them guillotined the same afternoon..
146Robespierre"Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible"
147The Reign of Terror To protect the Republic against domestic enemies Committee arrested people they suspected of treason20,000 – 40,000 were put to death by guillotineMarie Antoinette, was one victimNobles and clergy went to guillotineMost victims however were commonersTo protect the Republic from domestic enemies, the Committee of Public Safety set in motion the “Reign of Terror” The Committee arrested all persons suspected of treason and sentenced between 20,000 and 40,000 to death by guillotine. The former queen, Marie Antoinette, was one victim. Many nobles and clergy also went to the guillotine. However, many victims were commoners, including peasants, laborers, shopkeepers, and merchants. This Reign of Terror brutally crushed all domestic opposition.of Terror brutally crushed all domestic opposition.Ended with the death of Robespierre:Creation of The Directory
149Reign of Terror (1793-1794) Committee for Public Safety France losing war with others in EuropeReformsMetric systemNew calendarUniversal suffrageSlavery eliminatedParis communeLand redistributionDefaced churchesGuillotine20,000 dieKing and queen die
150The Execution of Louis XVI The constitutional monarchy put in place by moderate revolutionaries gave way to a radical republic.The National Convention decided to put Louis on trial for his crimes.Although his guilt was never an issue, there was a real debate in the Convention on whether the king should be killed.They voted for his execution.On January 23, 1793 Louis Capet went to the guillotine in the Place de la Concorde, where a statue of his predecessor, Louis XV, once stood. At the scaffold he said "I forgive those who are guilty of my death."
151Louis was tried (from December 11, 1792) and convicted of high treason before the Legislative Assembly. He was sentenced to death by guillotine by 361 votes to 288, with 72 effective abstentions.Stripped of all titles and honorifics by the egalitarian, Republican government, Citizen Louis Capet was guillotined in front of a cheering crowd onJanuary 21, 1793.
154His execution had important consequences for France, because it brought about ideas in other countries against the French Revolution.
155Nursery Rhyme & History Jack and Jill RhymeNursery Rhyme & HistoryJack and Jill story - The French (history) connection!The roots of the story, or poem, of Jack and Jill are in France. Jack and Jill referred to are said to be King Louis XVI - Jack -who was beheaded (lost his crown) followed by his Queen Marie Antoinette - Jill - (who came tumbling after).The words and lyrics to the Jack and Jill poem were made more acceptable as a story for children by providing a happy ending!The actual beheadings occurred in during the Reign of Terror in 1793.
157The Reign of TerrorAfter the death of Louis in 1793, the Reign of Terror began.Marie Antoinette led a parade of prominent and not-so-prominent citizens to their deaths. The guillotine, the new instrument of egalitarian justice, was put to work.Public executions were considered educational. Women were encouraged to sit and knit during trials and executions.The Revolutionary Tribunal ordered the execution of 2,400 people in Paris by July Across France 30,000 people lost their lives.
158Watch CommitteesThe Terror was designed to fight the enemies of the revolution, to prevent counter-revolution from gaining ground.Most of the people rounded up were not aristocrats, but ordinary people.A man (and his family) might go to the guillotine for saying something critical of the revolutionary government.Watch Committees around the nation were encouraged to arrest "suspected persons, ... those who, either by their conduct or their relationships, by their remarks or by their writing, are shown to be partisans of tyranny and federalism and enemies of liberty" (Law of Suspects, 1793).
159Suspension of Civil Liberties Civil liberties were suspended.The Convention ordered that "if material or moral proof exists, independently of the evidence of witnesses, the latter will not be heard, unless this formality should appear necessary, either to discover accomplices or for other important reasons concerning the public interest."The promises of the Declaration of the Rights of Man were forgotten.Terror was the order of the day. In the words of Maximilien Robespierre, "Softness to traitors will destroy us all."
160Maximilien Robespierre "Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible"
161The Guillotine was a cruel Form of punishment of death during the French Revolution. The Executioner cranked the blade to the top, and a mechanism released it. The blade was heavy, with its weight made the fall and the slice through the neck, severing the head from its body. About 90% of beheadings were of the Third Estate, about 7% from the Second Estate and about 3% from the First Estate.
162In spite of its efficiency, an execution by guillotine was still a sickening spectacle. When the head was severed, blood poured from the body as the heart continued to pump.When it was used frequently (as it was during the revolution), the stench from the place of execution was horrible.Although the guillotine is most closely associated with the French, the Nazis guillotined more people (20,000) than were killed during the French Revolution. Hitler considered it a demeaning form of punishment and used it for political executions in 1942 and 1943.The last use of the guillotine was in Capital punishment has been abolished in France.
163"Robespierre, with his cruel moral relativism, embodied the cardinal sin of all revolution, the heartlessness of ideas." Paul Johnson "The Spectator"
164The Committee of Public Safety Summer of 1794 – Reign of Terror was no longer necessary but Robespierre “drunk with power” continued to rid France of dangerous opponentsJuly 18, 1794 Robespierre was executed by guillotine - End of Reign of Terror
165Republic of VirtueRobespierre was the mastermind of the Reign of Terror.He was the leader of the Committee of Public Safety, the executive committee of the National Convention, and the most powerful man in France. He explained how terror would lead to the Republic of Virtue in a speech to the National Convention: “If the spring of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the springs of popular government in revolution are at once virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is fatal; terror, without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible...” Speech on TerrorThe old maxim "the end justifies the means" describes Robespierre's policy well.
166This stage involves recovering from the illness. The individual might be weakened from the experience, but he or she will eventuallyemerge healthy and with new knowledge and experience that mightprevent the illness from occurring again.What would this stage be like in a revolution?ConvalescenceIn a revolution, this stage would involve recovering from the extremedisruptions of the crisis stage. In general, the political, social,intellectual, or economic causes of the revolution must be addressed insome way, though not necessarily to the satisfaction of allrevolutionaries.
167Eighth StageThe public tires of the radicals, thus allowing moderates to regain power and restore order. Robespierre is arrested and executed.National Convention is replaced by the Directory.Places power in the hands of the middle class once again.
168The Last Victim of the Reign of Terror Even the radical Jacobins, the supporters of Robespierre, come to feel that the Terror must be stopped.Danton rose in the Convention calling for an end to the Terror. He was its next victim.When Robespierre called for a new purge in 1794, he seemed to threaten the other members of the Committee of Public Safety.The Jacobins had had enough.Cambon rose in the Convention and said “It is time to tell the whole truth. One man alone is paralyzing the will of the Convention. And that man is Robespierre.”Others quickly rallied to his support.Robespierre was arrested and sent to the guillotine the next day, the last victim of the Reign of Terror.
169died on the guillotine with his other supporters. A conspiracy overthrew Robespierre.On July 27, 1794, he was barredfrom speaking in publicand was placedUnder arrest.An uprisingby his supporterswas thwarted, andon July 28 Robespierredied on the guillotine withhis other supporters.Eighty more followers of Robespierre were executed the next day.
170The DirectoryPeople had grown tired of the instability and bloodshed of the revolution and were ready for something more moderate.By 1795, the republic was gone, and 5 men with business interests had the executive power in France.This new government was called The Directory.It was far more conservative than the Jacobin republic had been.It was also ineffectual.
171Eighth Stage: Reaction and the Directory Thermidorian Reaction and the DirectoryCurtails much of the Terror’s policiesConservative turn of the RevolutionConstitution of 1795Five person DirectoryPeriod of stagnation
172Eighth Stage---The Directory After Robespierre – power passed to wealthy middle classNational Convention created a new Constitution – The Constitution of 1795Five Directors – The Directory – acted as the executive authorityIncompetent and corrupt ---the new government could not solve the country’s problems.Rise of the popular General Napoleon Bonaparte in 1794By the summer of 1794, the French had succeeded in defending the country against invasion. Now, there was less need for the Terror, but it continued nonetheless. Robespierre, who had become very powerful, used the guillotine to rid himself of the most dangerous opponents within the Convention. Finally, his opponents in the Convention gathered enough votes to condemn him, and Robespierre was guillotined on July 18, The execution of Robespierre led to the end of the Terror.After the death of Robespierre, power passed to the wealthy middle class, which took control of the Convention. The National Convention prepared a new constitution for the Republic, the Constitution of Five directors – the Directory – acted as the executive authority. Incompetent and corrupt, the new government could not find a solution to the country’s economic problems and was still carrying on the war. This led to a coup d’ tat (violent overthrow of the government) in 1794 in which the popular general Napoleon Bonaparte was able to seize power.
173Government under the Directory Executive5 directors appointed by the LegislatureLegislatureLower house (500 members) proposed lawsUpper house (250 members) voted on these laws2/3 of the Legislature would initially be filled by members of the ConventionQualificationsGirondists (middle-class party) had defeated the Jacobins (working- and peasant-class party)Girondists’ constitution stated that suffrage (the right to vote), as well as the right to hold office, were limited to property owners
174Directory ( )The Directory suffered from corruption and poor administration.The people of France grew poorer and more frustrated with their government.Despite, or perhaps because of, these struggles, the French developed a strong feeling of nationalism – they were proud of their country and devoted to it.National pride was fueled by military successes.It would be a military leader – Napoleon Bonaparte, coming to power through a coup d’état – who would end the ten-year period ( ) known as the French Revolution.
175Eighth Stage---Return of the moderates (1794-1799) Thermidorian reactionCounter-revolution"Whiff of grapeshot"(1795)Death of Marat, Danton, RobespierreModerates gained control of National ConventionReturn of expatriate noblemen allowed (money)National Assembly re-electedAdoption of new constitutionRule by the Directory
176Eighth Stage---Return of the moderates The Directory governedSome military successes (Napoleon)Directory criticized for poor leadershipDirectory desperate for a popular leader2nd Coalition ( ) formedNapoleon invited to be consul
177Ninth StageSometimes this stage occurs, the people return to a similar form of government that they started out with.Corrupt Directory is overthrown by Napoleon.Napoleon becomes First Consul.Then Napoleon crowns himself emperor and has absolute power.
178Ninth Stage: Age of Napoleon Rise of NapoleonBorn in Corsica, 1769Commissioned a lieutenant, 1785Promoted to brigadier general, 1794Victory in Italy, 1797Defeat in Egypt, 1799Coup d’etat
179Napoleon BonaparteThe people readily accepted the coup d'etat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799.The revolution was over. Or was it?
180The Rise Of Napoleon I crown myself king! In 1800 Napoleon became the emperor of France.Napoleon had already had military success as a French Military General in the war.Napoleon brought some reforms of the revolution like equal taxation.Napoleon ruled as a military dictatorship.Napoleon created the Napoleonic Code which was a system of laws and rights.The Napoleonic Code took away rights from women, and it took away freedom of speech, among other things that had been gained from the Revolutionary War.Napoleon lost only one major battle, Unfortunately for Napoleon this loss was more important than any of his wins.The rise of Napoleon was not a major step towards democracy even thought the people voted for him.Napoleon took advantage of the French people and became an absolute power.I crown myself king!
181The Rise Of NapoleonNapoleon Bonaparte, even thought he a was short man, he was an excellent military genius. He won some great wars for France, he was a military success.At the time France was under control of the Directory. Soon the Directory lost control of people.When that happen Napoleon gets dictatorial power and does great thing to France, like stabilized the economy, established a tax collection system and built a national bank.He kept some of the reforms of the revolution, he didn’t change everything.By this point he was very popular with the people and decided to crown his self Emperor of France.The rise of Napoleon contributes with the rise of democracy because you have a great leader, who has been very successful in the military.Who would be a better person to lead France to a better future? The people liked him and they voted on a constitution that gave Napoleon all the power.This wasn’t a forceful battle on “who’s going to rule France” it was about who could do the job right. This is similar to a president like in the US, the people know he could do the job, and agreed that he was the right men for the job, Napoleon was like the president of France.
183Ninth Stage: The Republic and the Empire Republic of France proclaimed, 1799First ConsulFirst Consul for life, 1802Crowned Emperor Napoleon I, 1804Domestic Policies of Emperor NapoleonNapoleon and the Catholic ChurchConcordat of 1801A New Code of LawsCode Napoleon (Civil Code)The French BureaucracyCentralization of administration Growing despotism
184Ninth Stage: Napoleon’s Empire and the European Response Peace of Amiens, 1802Renewal of war, 1803Military victories,Napoleon’s Grand EmpireFailure of the Grand EmpireProblems: Great Britain and NationalismSurvival of BritainSeapowerContinental System,Nationalism
188Ninth Stage: The Fall of Napoleon Invasion of Russia, 1812Defeat of Napoleon, April 1814Exiled to ElbaEscape, 1815Battle of Waterloo, June 18, 1815Exiled to St. Helena
189The Revolution’s Legacy Was the French Revolution a failure?After Congress of Vienna, monarchs ruled againCitizens’ rights restrictedNobles returned to their previous lifestylesFrench Revolution changed EuropeMonarchies no longer secureCommon people learned they could change the worldIdeals of human dignity, personal liberty, and equalityEnlightenment crossed the Atlantic to Latin America, eventually inspired political movements in Asia and Africa