2JAMA. Published online December 18, 2013. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.284427
3PreambleThe panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) used rigorous evidence-based methods, developing Evidence Statements and recommendations for blood pressure (BP) treatment based on a systematic review of the literature to meet user needs, especially the needs of the primary care clinician.This report is an executive summary of the evidence and is designed to provide clear recommendations for all clinicians.There is strong evidence to support treating hypertensive persons aged 60 years or older to a BP goal of less than 150/90mmHg and hypertensive persons 30 through 59 years of age to a diastolic goal of less than 90 mm Hg; however, there is insufficient evidence in hypertensive persons younger than 60 years for a systolic goal, or in those younger than 30 years for a diastolic goal - so the panel recommends a BP of less than 140/90mmHg for those groups based on expert opinion.The same thresholds and goals are recommended for hypertensive adults with diabetes or non-diabetic CKD as for the general hypertensive population younger than 60 years.
7Recommendation 1 In the general population aged ≥ 60 years, Initiate pharmacologic treatment to lower BP at systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 150 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90mmHg andTreat to a goal SBP <150 mm Hg and goal DBP <90 mm Hg.(Strong Recommendation – Grade A)
8Recommendation 2In the general population aged ≥ 60years, if pharmacologic treatment for high BP results in lower achieved SBP (eg, <140mmHg) and treatment is well tolerated and without adverse effects on health or quality of life, treatment does not need to be adjusted.(Expert Opinion – Grade E)
9Recommendation 3 In the general population <60 years, initiate pharmacologic treatment to lower BP at DBP ≥ 90mmHg andtreat to a goal DBP < 90mmHg.(For ages years, Strong Recommendation – Grade A;For ages years, Expert Opinion – Grade E)
10Recommendation 4 In the general population <60 years, initiate pharmacologic treatment to lower BP at SBP ≥ 140mmHg andtreat to a goal SBP < 140mmHg.(Expert Opinion – Grade E)
11Recommendation 5In the population aged ≥ 18 years with chronic kidney disease (CKD),initiate pharmacologic treatment to lower BP at SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg or DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg andtreat to goal SBP < 140 mm Hg and goal DBP < 90mm Hg.(Expert Opinion – Grade E)
12Recommendation 6 In the population aged ≥ 18years with diabetes, initiate pharmacologic treatment to lower BP at SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg or DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg andtreat to a goal SBP <140mmHg and goal DBP <90mmHg.(Expert Opinion –Grade E)
13Recommendation 7In the general non-black population, including those with diabetes,initial antihypertensive treatment should include a thiazide-type diuretic, calcium channel blocker (CCB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB).(Moderate Recommendation – Grade B)
14Recommendation 8In the general black population, including those with diabetes,initial antihypertensive treatment should include a thiazide-type diuretic or CCB.(For general black population: Moderate recommendation –Grade B; for black patients with diabetes: Weak Recommendation – Grade C)
15Recommendation 9 In the population aged ≥ 18 years with CKD, initial (or add-on) antihypertensive treatment should include an ACEI or ARB to improve kidney outcomes.This applies to all CKD patients with hypertension regardless of race or diabetes status.(Moderate Recommendation – Grade B)
21Guideline Comparisons of Goal BP and Initial Drug Therapy for Adults With Hypertension
22ConclusionsIt is important to note that this evidence-based guideline has not redefined high BP, and the panel believes that the 140/90mmHg definition from JNC 7 remains reasonable.The relationship between naturally occurring BP and risk is linear down to very low BP, but the benefit of treating to these lower levels with antihypertensive drugs is not established.
23ConclusionsFor all persons with hypertension, the potential benefits of a healthy diet, weight control, and regular exercise cannot be overemphasized.These lifestyle treatments have the potential to improve BP control and even reduce medication needs.
24ConclusionsThe recommendations from JNC 8 offer clinicians an analysis of what is known and not known about BP treatment thresholds, goals, and drug treatment strategies to achieve those goals based on evidence from RCTs.However, these recommendations are not a substitute for clinical judgment, and decisions about care must carefully consider and incorporate the clinical characteristics and circumstances of each individual patient