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Violence is ugly…... So how do we stop the violence…. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence.

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Presentation on theme: "Violence is ugly…... So how do we stop the violence…. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Violence is ugly…..

2 So how do we stop the violence…. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

3 The Jigsaw Classroom Elliot Aronson (1979) a cooperative learning technique designed to reduce prejudice and violence. Just as in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece--each student's part--is essential for the completion and full understanding of the final product. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

4 The Jigsaw Classroom Elliot Aronson (1979) If each student's part is essential, then each student is essential; and that is precisely what makes this strategy so effective. Aronson advocated for jigsaw classrooms as part of an approach to defusing the social divisions underlying school violence. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

5 Jigsaw Example…. Here is how it works: The students in a history class, for example, are divided into small groups of five or six students each. Suppose their task is to learn about World War II. In one jigsaw group, Sara is responsible for researching Hitler's rise to power in pre-war Germany. Another member of the group, Steven, is assigned to cover concentration camps; Pedro is assigned Britain's role in the war; Melody is to research the contribution of the Soviet Union; Tyrone will handle Japan's entry into the war; Clara will read about the development of the atom bomb. Eventually each student will come back to her or his jigsaw group and will try to present a well-organized report to the group. The situation is specifically structured so that the only access any member has to the other five assignments is by listening closely to the report of the person reciting. Thus, if Tyrone doesn't like Pedro, or if he thinks Sara is a nerd and tunes her out or makes fun of her, he cannot possibly do well on the test that follows. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

6 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) The program includes all staff, parents, and students in the school (universal program). The aim is to change the school environment as a whole while targeting individual students. Teachers receive training so that they can recognize and deal with bullying and implement cooperative learning strategies in the classroom. Includes supervision of the playgrounds and lunchroom. Students fill out questionnaires. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

7 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) The aim is to identify bullies in elementary, middle, and high schools and help them and their victims. Adults should be positive role models and set firm limits to unacceptable behavior. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

8 Longitudinal study on the effect of OBPP on bullying Olweus (1993) The study was conducted in the Bergen area in Norway after three adolescents had committed suicide as a result of bullying. A sample of 2,500 children from fifth to eighth grades participated in the program over two years. Data collection took place through observations and questionnaires (teachers, students). Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

9 Longitudinal study on the effect of OBPP on bullying Olweus (1993) Results showed an overall 50% reduction in self- reported bullying incidents (victimization or bullying other students) and a general improvement of the social climate of the classes. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

10 Longitudinal study on the effect of OBPP on bullying Olweus (1993) Students’ self-reports showed higher satisfaction with school life, improved order and discipline, more positive social relationships, and a more positive attitude toward schoolwork and the school in general. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

11 Longitudinal study on the effect of OBPP on bullying Olweus (1993) This indicates a high level of effectiveness of the program but not all studies find the same. Roland (1993) could not replicate the findings in another part of Norway. Olweus (2003) only found a 21–38 % reduction in observed bullying in a later study and the same was observed in the USA. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

12 Let’s discuss the of relative effectiveness of school based programs… It seems that school-based strategies to reduce violence are not always very effective. It is probably because violence is a complex phenomenon that must be addressed at social, cultural, individual, and socioeconomic levels. It is necessary to look at what works when and with whom as well as what does not work. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence

13 Meta-analysis of all these programs…. Ferguson et al. (2007) performed a meta-analysis of effectiveness of school-based anti-bullying programs and found that overall they were not very effective in reducing bullying or violent behavior in schools. The programs targeting at-risk youth were slightly better. The reason for this could be that bullying may allow some bullies to climb the social dominance hierarchy among children at the expense of other children. For such bullies the anti-bullying programs offer no incentives. Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence


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