Warm-up What sides fought in the Crusades? What was the goal?
Our Crusades EQ… Were the Crusades primarily a religious conflict? Paper assignment—due in two Mondays.
The Crusades begin… Pope Urban II declares the Crusades in 1095 at the Council of Clermont…Crusades begin in 1096. – Urban II wants to retake the city in a second. The Crusades last from 1096-1291. But…is this really the first Crusade? Is this really when the Crusades end? – 1096-1291 are the series of Crusades launched by Western Europe to retake Jerusalem.
Crusades in other places Reconquista: 718-1492 Northern Crusades: 1193-1290 Albigensian Crusade: 1209-1229 Aragonese Crusade: 1284-1285
Reconquista Iberian Peninsula (Spain/Portugal) Attempt to retake Iberian Peninsula after Muslim invasion (Moors) Potential spark for other Crusades—Christian reconquest? Mostly finished by 1300, but the fall of Granada (1492) in the far south is the official end.
Northern Crusades Scandinavian & German kings attack pagans (non-Abrahamic people). “Brothers of the Sword” aid conversion of pagans to Christianity, but also protect German trade. Some efforts of Northern Crusade spilled over into attacks on Orthodox Russia
Albigensian Crusade 20-year war by Catholic Church to destroy Catharism. Catharism was a group of Christians in southern France who were led by local ascetics. It challenged the Catholic Church— they called it “the Church of Satan.” Albigensian Crusade ends with the Cathars surrendering and child-king Louis IX (a later Crusader) taking control of France.
Aragonese Crusade Part of the War of the Sicilian Vespers A war between two sides (Aragon and Angevin) to decide who was king of Sicily Fought in northeastern Spain-- Catalonia The Pope was against the King of Aragon, but the two-year Crusade ended with an Aragonese victory.
Crusades in the Levant First Crusade (1095-1099) Second Crusade (1147-1149) Third Crusade (1187-1192) Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Sixth Crusade (1228-1229) Seventh Crusade (1248-1254) Eighth & Ninth Crusades (1270-1272)
First Crusade Trying to retake land in the Levant lost to the Muslims in the 600s (pre-Umayyad) Now fighting the Seljuq Turks Reconquered Jerusalem in 1099 ONLY Crusade to reconquer Jerusalem Jerusalem had been under Muslim control for 400+ years…defensive or aggressive? Muslims and Jews slaughtered
Second Crusade After the First Crusade, many “Crusader states” were established as footholds in the Levant. One Crusader state fell and the Christians attempt to retake it. They are destroyed by the Muslims, eventually leading to the Muslim recapture of Jerusalem (and then the Third Crusade).
Third Crusade Muslim leader Saladin reconquered lots of parts of the Levant. England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire band together. The Holy Roman Emperor was old and drowned. Richard the Lionheart leads the Crusade. Reconquer lots of land, but do not take Jerusalem (moderate success).
Fourth Crusade An attempt to retake Jerusalem after the Third Crusade didn’t. Crusaders invade Constantinople (a Christian city) and sack it. Final major Crusade. Ends any hope of reunification between Catholic and Orthodox branches after Great Schism.
Fifth Crusade Attempt to invade the Holy Land through Egypt. Crushing defeat for Crusaders.
Sixth Crusade Army does not turn out to be very large. Not even supported by the Pope. The Holy Roman Emperor at the time pretended the army was larger than it was and negotiated to get Jerusalem back—didn’t take it by force.
Seventh Crusade Jerusalem falls after the weird Sixth Crusade. Louis IX of France begins a Crusade!!1! Three groups fighting: Christians (French forces under Louis), Muslims (Ayyubid Dynasty), and Mamluks (Muslim soldiers who were previously slaves). Mamluks overthrow Ayyubids in 1250—the middle of the Crusade. Louis IX gets captured…epic fail.
Eighth & Ninth Crusades Launched by Louis IX to avenge himself. He dies. Louis’ dying word? Jerusalem. The next leader gives up and makes a deal with the Mamluk leader Baibars that they’ll give up if they can trade together! They leave. After the French leave, the English king arrives and wins a few battles. However, he withdraws and the Crusader states fall a few years later. THE END (until the 15 th century, when there were some pseudo- Crusades, but you know…)
Chart Go through your notes from yesterday/today and fill out the chart—this will help you prepare to write your paper.
Map of the Crusades Sketch a map of Europe, including Anatolia, the Levant, and Egypt. At least label Italy, Spain, France, England, Holy Roman Empire, and Jerusalem. Draw arrows showing each of the Crusades (including non-Levant ones, 13 total) and put years on them. Label “The Crusades” at the top.
Impact of the Crusades Brainstorm the impact of the Crusades on the world (religious, political, economic, social, etc.)
Impact of the Crusades “Europe Overseas” Opened up trade Pope reinforces position Medieval heroism, chivalry, and piety Militarism Hatred of Jews/Muslims Ended hope of Catholic/Orthodox reunification Byzantine Empire weakened
Writing Formatting Structure & transitions Progress logically to answer the question Information* “I” and “me” “I have written this” vs. “I wrote this” Independent and dependent clauses *APA-style citations